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Unformatted text preview: I. Review Low molecular weight carboxylic acids are soluble in water because the carboxyl group can engage in hydrogen bonding with water Higher molecular weight carboxylic acids are not soluble in neutral water, but can be dissolved in basic water because the carboxylates are very strong hydrogen bonding groups Detergents are salts of long chain carboxylic (or sulfonic or phosphonic) acids that form spherical micelles where the alkyl groups aggregate to form a hydrophobic interior and the carboxy groups are located on the surface to confer aqueous solubility This allows organic molecules to be dissolved in water Hydrophobic drugs can also be solublized inside micelles The principles of micelle formation are similar to those of the double wall membrane in cells Acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters, and amides are members of a family of molecules called carboxylic acid derivatives The reactivity of these species toward nucleophiles is strongly dependent upon the substituent...
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