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ch 5-8 com100

ch 5-8 com100 - Ch.5 Instrumental use of language to obtain...

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Ch.5 Instrumental - use of language to obtain what you need or desire Regulatory - use of language to control or regulate the behaviors of others Informative - use of language to communicate information or report facts Heuristic - use of language to acquire knowledge and understanding Interactional - use of language to establish and define social relationships Personal language - use of language to express individuality and personality Imaginative - use of language to express oneself artistically or creatively Phonology - the study of the sound s that compose individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning Syntax - the rules that govern word order Semantics - the study of meaning Denotative meaning - the dictionary, or literal, meaning of a word Connotative meaning - the affective or interpretive meanings attached to a word Pragmatics - field of study that emphasizes how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals Speech act theory - branch or pragmatics that suggests the when people communicate, they don’t just say things, they also do things with their words Locutionary - describes what is said, of the act of ‘saying’ something Illocutionary - describes what one does with one’s utterance; what the utterance accomplishes Dialect - a variation of a language distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation Lexical choice - vocabulary Cohort effect - the influence of shared characteristics of group that was born and reared in the same general period Ebonics - an American English dialect that some African Americans speak Jargon - the specialized terms that develop in many professions Sensing - the stage of listening most people refer to as ‘hearing When listeners pick us the sound waves directed toward them Understanding - interpreting the messages associated with sounds or what the sounds mean Evaluating - assessing your reaction to a message Responding - showing others how you regard their message Nominalists - those who argue that any idea can be expressed in any language and that the structure and vocabulary of the language do not influence the speaker’s perception or the world Relativists - those who argue that language serves not only as a way for us to voice our ideas but ‘is itself the shaper of ideas, the guide for the individual’s mental activity’ Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - idea that the language people speak determines the way that they see the world (a relativist perspective) Co cultural theory - explores the role of power in daily interactions Disconfirming communication - comments that reject or invalidate a positive self-image of our conversational partners Confirming communication - comments that validate positive self-images of others
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Ch. 6 Nonverbal codes - distinct, organized means of expression that consists of symbols and rules for their use Kinesics - a nonverbal communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement. Facial expressions, and eye behavior Gestures - nonverbal communication made with part of the body, including actions such
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ch 5-8 com100 - Ch.5 Instrumental use of language to obtain...

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