ALD 321 Review for Final

ALD 321 Review for Final - ALD 321 Final Review Social...

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ALD 321 Final Review Social Development o Erikson Follower of Freud  Wrote Childhood Society How children develop their personality  o Erikson’s Stages Psychosocial play First stage: Trust vs. Mistrust o Infants o “to get; to give in return” o Infant learns whether the world is a secure place o Infant develops a sense of trust if her basic needs are met with consistency  and continuity and mistrust with the opposite Second stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt  o Toddlers o “to hold on; to let go” o Toddlers seek to become autonomous and independent o If the toddler encounters support and firmness as he seeks to control his own  actions and body, autonomy will result  o If adult is restrictive then shame will occur Third stage: Initiative vs. Guilt o Preschoolers o “to go after; to play” o Preschoolers can start imagining things in their mind o More comfortable initiating activities Making up games o They are aware of their moral responsibilities  Very egocentric Concentrate in only outcomes They really care about what their parents tell them Fourth stage: Industry vs. Inferiority  o School-age o “to compete; to make things together” o They try to learn things/figure out things (especially in school) Play stages  Autocosmic Play o Begins with and centers on the child’s own body; exploration by repetition  of  perception, sensations, vocalizations and so on
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Microsphere Play o “small world of manageable toys” o The pleasure of mastery associated with the mastery of traumata Macrosphere Play o “the world shared with others” o Infant Anxiety Stranger Anxiety Fear of strangers Emerges as early as 6 months Also depends on temperament; proximity of caregiver Separation Anxiety Fear when not with parents Fear of being left by mother (caregiver) o Types of Social Play Rough and Tumble Play Characterized by running, chasing, fleeing, and wrestling behaviors Many teachers do not recognize the differences between play fighting and real fighting o Teachers and parents believe to stop this play o Researchers intend to encourage play Promotes friendships and social skill Reaches its peak during elementary school years Gender and ethnic differences o Boys do it more than girls o Asians seem to do most of this play Superhero Active play in which children pretend to be media characters that often have extraordinary abilities Often viewed negatively by adults, but can have positive benefits such as promoting friendships and elevating social status While play with war toys is often banned in school, it usually persists; research does not support the premise that war toys cause aggressive play o Negative Social Relations Bullying Both boys and girls can be aggressive
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ALD 321 Review for Final - ALD 321 Final Review Social...

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