Psy1-2010-2_Methods

Psy1-2010-2_Methods - Psychology 1 Spring 2010 Section 2:...

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1 ** Important Notice Concerning Lecture Material ** These files contain most, but not all, overhead material presented in lecture (e.g., some material may be altered or addedinlasminute changes) added in last-minute changes). The best use of these file is to print them out and take notes on them during lectures. Æ WARNING: Perfect knowledge of this material will not guarantee an A in the course. Important details will be presented in lectures but are not in these pdf files. Thus, it is very important that you attend lecture and discussion sections. 2.1: Research Designs Three Basic Behavioral Research Designs 2 1a) Descriptive Designs 2.1a) Descriptive Designs: Observe behaviors 2.1b) Correlational Designs Compare (co-related) behaviors 2.1c) Experimental Designs: Manipulate behaviors Psychology 1 Spring 2010 Section 2: Research Methods
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2 2.1a: Descriptive Designs ¾ Piaget’s observations of kid Descriptive designs are observational Field Studies (natural settings) ± Careful observation of behavior Piagets observations of kids ¾ Ethological approaches (Lorenz) Imprinting King Solomon’s Ring” Jane Goodall’s observation of chimpanzee behavior Descriptive designs are observational Field Studies (natural settings) ± Careful observation of behavior 2.1a: Descriptive Designs Laboratory Studies (control of settings) ± Case studies-- interviews, questioning, reports - Freud’s analysis of Anna O. - Terr’s study of Chowchilla incident ± Surveys and Questionnaires (group analyses) - Describes data, public opinion and beliefs e.g., pre-screening packet ± As with all descriptive designs, there is little or no experimenter intervention Psychology 1 Spring 2010 Section 2: Research Methods
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3 2.1b: Correlational Designs Correlational designs compare two factors or measures …though there is no manipulation of factors. Examples Examples… TV watching vs aggression GPA vs study time learning ability vs brain size Scatterplot : Graph of each individual’sscores from two individual s scores from two factors Hypothetical data between brain size and learning(n=25) There appears to be a correlation between the two factors. r= .34 r= .04 Degrees of Correlations r= .86 r= .55 Strength of correlations is measured by the r statistic (0= no correlation, 1.0= perfect correlation) Psychology 1 Spring 2010 Section 2: Research Methods
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4 Correlations can be negative: An increase in one factor related to decrease in the other. Degrees of Correlations Negative correlations have negative slopes (r= -1 to 0) Conclusions from Correlational Designs • Correlational analyses are merely comparative • Correlational analyses can be predictive • But, there’s no manipulation of behavior ¾
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Psy1-2010-2_Methods - Psychology 1 Spring 2010 Section 2:...

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