by Joe Smoe
Starting about 8,000BC, all of Northern Africa became a drier, more desert-like
Back then, man lived in nomadic groups of hunters and gatherer.
climate forced man to migrate to more hospitable lands, some migrated to Nile River
Valley which is a vast land surrounding the Nile River.
There in this land
abundant with life, there were plenty of food and water for these people.
the Neolithic Revolution (10,000BC to 3,500BC) man discovered the art of
agriculture, this skill arrived in Egypt approximately 7,000BC.
finally able to use the rich silt brought by the yearly flooding of the Nile River
which annually flooded since 60,000 years ago.
The Nile River is the world's longest river , it is approximately 4,160 miles long
and flows from the highlands in Central Africa to the Mediterranean Sea.
It is the
main reason why the Ancient Egyptians were such a successful people, the moisture
from the river was the only thing keeping Egypt from change to a desert.
then, everybody knew that without the river they had no chance of survival.
of all the main food the Egyptians ate were bread made from the grain grown with
the precious silt and water from the Nile River.
Barges and boats made with
papyrus reeds or wooden planks(used after 3,000BC) were filled with different thing
such as grains were floated downstream and carried by the current, or if they
needed to be floated upstream, you would simply just raise the sails up and the
ship would sail upstream, the Egyptians invented sails at approximately 3,200BC.
Although the Nile is such an abundant source of life, it fertilize just a narrow
strip of land, eventually the Egyptians built large irrigation systems which would
carry water into the desert.
Ancient cultures were often plagued with warfare and attacks from other cultures,
Egypt's geography protected it from most of its neighbors.
The Mediterranean Sea,
the Red Sea, the Nubian Desert, and the Libyan Desert surrounded Egypt, it was very
hard for an outside to even enter Egypt.
In the Nile River there are six
cataracts, waterfalls or rapids, these prevented people from a region called Kush
which would be modern day Ethiopia from using the river to travel to Egypt and
Still there were invaders who would attack Egypt, from the Sinai
Peninsula invaders attacked Egypt, but Egypt also used this land as a path to
conquer other people.
The small villages that lined the river eventually became two kingdoms, Upper Egypt
and Lower Egypt.
The name of the king that eventually united the two kingdoms is
Menes, he originally ruled just Upper Egypt, but by conquering Lower Egypt, he not
only increase his own power, he created one of the greatest civilizations ever.
His successors, the king after him, wore a double crown to symbolize that they