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Unformatted text preview: Lectures on algebraic geometry Jacobs 2010 Notes of lectures 1 and 2 Alan Huckleberry February 6, 2010 1 Introduction We will study the geometry of algebraic varieties X which are at least lo cally defined to be the common zeroset { P 1 = . .. = P k = 0 } of a number polynomials in n variables. At least at the beginning the discussion will be carried out over the field C . A good starting point is one polynomial of a single variable. 2 The fundamental theorem of algebra Since the field of complex numbers is really an analytic object, the name of this theorem may be regarded as a misnomer. Here is the most familiar formulation. Theorem 2.1. If P ∈ C [ w ] a polynomial of degree d , then there are uniquely determined complex numbers c ∈ C * and w 1 , .. . ,w k ∈ C and positive integers n 1 , .. . ,n k with ∑ n j = d so that P = c ( w w 1 ) n 1 · . .. · ( w w k ) n k . We would like to discuss this theorem in detail, but first let us prove it using several ideas which are useful in complex geometry. 1 First, instead of regarding P as an element of some ring, we interpret it as a map P : C → C . Such a map has a graph C = { ( z, w ) ∈ C 2 ; P ( w ) z = 0 } which we regard as a complex curve in C 2 . We may identify the domain of definition of P with C and consquently P : C → C is defined by the projection ( z, w ) → z . Thus the proof Theorem 2.1 is reduced to proving the following. Theorem 2.2. The map P : C → C is surjective. To prove this we will show that Im( P ) is both open and closed. For the latter property we recall that a map F : X → Y between topological spaces is called proper if for all compact subsets K of X the image F ( K ) is compact. Here we have assumed that X and Y are Hausdorff topological spaces. Note properness can also be defined by requiring divergent sequences to be mapped to divergent sequences. Proposition 2.3. A nonconstant polynomial P ∈ C [ z ] defines a proper map P : C → C . In particular, Im( P ) is closed. Proof. If P ( w ) = a d w d + O ( w d 1), then  P ( w )  ≥  a d  w  d O (  w  d 1 ) . As  w  → ∞ the term  w  d dominates and therefore lim  w →∞  P ( w )  = ∞ . Now we turn to proving the second property, i.e., to proving the openness of the image. Exercise. Decompose P into real and imaginary parts, P = u + iv , and view P as mapping P : R 2 → R 2 . Compute the Jacobian determinant J ( P ) of this real mapping and show that it is J ( P ) =  P ( w )  2 . Here the complex derivative is computed as expected: If P = ∑ a k w k , then P = ∑ ka k w k 1 . 2 Application of the C ∞inverse mapping theorem. As a result one knows that P is locally invertible as a smooth map at every point which is not in the ramification set R := { w ; P ( w ) = 0 } . Therefore the set B = F ( R ) of branch points will play a key role our discussion....
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2010 for the course MATHEMATIC 120102 taught by Professor Xxxxxxxxxyyyyyy during the Spring '10 term at Jacobs University Bremen.
 Spring '10
 xxxxxxxxxyyyyyy
 Algebra, Geometry

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