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Final Study Guide with answers

Final Study Guide with answers - BIO 188 STUDY GUIDE Spring...

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BIO 188 STUDY GUIDE – Spring 2010 CHAPTER 2 – The Chemical Context of Life Know the differences between covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds as well as van der Waals interactions. Know what reactants and products are. 1. Covalent bonds share outer electrons 2. Ionic bonds are formed from stealing or giving outer electrons 3. Hydrogen bonds are a type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule. 4. If electrons are distributed asymmetrically in molecules or atoms, they can result in “hot spots” of positive or negative charge Van der Waals interactions are attractions between molecules that are close together as a result of these charges. 5. Reactants are starting material. Products are the end materials. CHAPTER 3 - Water Know why water is a polar molecule Know the 4 emergent properties of water and how they are linked to the structure of water Know the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic 1. A water molecule is polar because the bonds between it’s hydrogen and oxygen atoms are polar covalent bonds due to the unequal sharing of electrons and the positive (hydrogen) and negative (oxygen) poles. 2. Cohesion - is responsible for water’s surface tension. Adhesion - Attraction to other substances (water is adhesive to anything that it can form a hydrogen bond with) Specific Heat - Has a high specific heat (amount of heat that must be absorbed or expended to change 1gram of substance, 1degree celcius.) Heat of Vaporization - High heat of vaporization = evaporative colling (amount of energy required to change 1gram of liquid into a gas) 3. Hydorphilic - Attracted to water Hydrophobic - Repelled by water CHAPTER 4 – Carbon Know he 3 different types of isomers Know what a carbon skeleton is
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1. Isomers - Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures therefore different properties. Structural Isomers - Have different covalent arrangements of their atoms Geometric Isomers - Have the same covalent arrangements but have different special arrangements Enantiomer - Isomers that are mirror images of each other. 2. Carbons skeletons are the carbon chains formed in most organic molecules. CHAPTER 5 – Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Know the difference between a condensation (dehydration) reaction and a hydrolysis reaction and where they characteristically occur Know the 4 groups of macromolecules and their characteristic features i.e. subunits and characteristic bonds Know the 4 levels of protein structure and the characteristics of each level Know the interactions that contribute to protein shape Know the difference between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats Know how lipids arrange themselves in water 1.
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Final Study Guide with answers - BIO 188 STUDY GUIDE Spring...

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