Topic 1 Part A - Nature of molecules S10 1pp

Topic 1 Part A - Nature of molecules S10 1pp - TOPIC 1 Part...

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1 TOPIC 1 - Part A The Chemical Context of Life Chapters 2 - 4
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2 OBJECTIVES To understand or know: the difference between an element and a compound the components of the structure of an atom what an isotope is the difference between a cation and an anion the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond Strong versus weak bonds difference between a reactant and a product 2 different weak chemical interactions and how they are formed
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3 KEY WORDS AND PHRASES atom; proton; neutron; atomic nucleus; electron; atomic number mass; weight; atomic mass; isotopes; radioactive isotopes; half-life ion; cation; anion; orbitals; valence electrons; molecule; compound; chemical bond; ionic bond; covalent bond; reactant; product; electronegativity; polar covalent bond; hydrogen bond; van der Waals interactions
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4 Outline Structure of Atoms Isotopes Radioactive Isotopes Electrons and Chemical Behavior Chemical Bonds Ionic versus Covalent
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5 Overview: Chemistry & Biology Are Connected Biology is a multidisciplinary science Living organisms are subject to the basic laws of physics and chemistry Organisms composed of matter Matter = anything that takes up space & has mass
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6 Matter Matter made up of elements Element = cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions Compound = 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio characteristics of a compound are different from its elements
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7 Compounds
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8 Elements and the Periodic Table About 25 of the 92 elements are essential to life Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N) make up 96% of living matter Most of the remaining 4% consists of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) Trace elements are those required by an organism in minute quantities
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9
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10 Atoms All matter is composed of atoms Atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element Atoms composed of protons (+), neutrons (neutral) & electrons (-) = subatomic particles Protons & neutrons in the atom’s nucleus, while electrons circle the nucleus Atomic number
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