Topic 3 - Cell Structure S10 1pp

Topic 3 - Cell Structure S10 1pp - Topic 3 (Chapter 6) A...

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1 Topic 3 (Chapter 6) A Tour of the Cell
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2 OBJECTIVES To understand or know: The cell theory Why cells are small, the approximate sizes of different cell types and how this relates to the three factors that limit cell size The fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells The concept of compartmentation within a cell The characteristic structure of each eukaryotic organelle The characteristic function(s) of each eukaryotic organelle How the endomembrane system facilitates protein transport within a cell The endosymbiosis theory of organelle genesis Characteristic differences between plant and animal cells Components of the cytoskeleton and their characteristics
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3 KEY WORDS and PHRASES Genetic material; cytoplasm; plasma membrane; organelles; diffusion Prokaryotic; cytoplasm; Gram-positive; Gram-negative; binary fission; plasmid; conjugation; pilus; flagella; cilia Eukaryotic; nucleus; nucleolus; nuclear pore; chromosomes; chromatin; histones; nucleosome; ribosomes; endomembrane system; endoplasmic reticulum; signal sequence; Golgi apparatus; Golgi bodies; glycoprotein; glycolipid; vesicles; lysosomes; microbodies; glyoxisome; peroxisome; mitochondria; cristae; chloroplasts; grana; thylakoids; endosymbiosis; cytoskeleton; actin filaments; actin; microtubules; tubulin; cetrioles; centrosome; intermediate filaments; central vacuole; cell wall; extracellular matrix.
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4 Outline History of cells and cell theory Investigating cells Cell Size Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelles Containing DNA Endosymbiosis cytoskeleton Plant Cells Animal Cells
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5 History of Cells Robert Hooke (1665) - viewed cork (plant cell walls) under microscope Non-living Called cork cellulae = “small rooms” (Latin) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek - first to observe living cells a few years later “animacules” = very little animal
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6 Visualizing Cells Resolution - minimum distance two points can be apart and still be distinguished as two separate points Human eye has limited resolution Microscopes magnify with increasing clarity Compound microscopes - magnify in stages using multiple lenses Transmission electron microscope - electrons transmitted through specimen Scanning electron microscope - electrons beamed onto surface of the specimen Can now visualize structure of single molecules (scanning-tunneling/atomic force microscope)
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7 Cell Fractionation Cell fractionation takes cells apart and separates major organelles from one another Ultracentrifuges fractionate cells into their component parts Cell fractionation enables determination of organelle function Biochemistry and cytology allow structure/function correlations Homogenization TECHNIQUE Homogenate Tissue cells 1,000 g (1,000 times the force of gravity) 10 min Differential centrifugation Supernatant poured into next tube 20,000 g 20 min 80,000 g 60 min
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Topic 3 - Cell Structure S10 1pp - Topic 3 (Chapter 6) A...

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