Topic 6 Part A Cellular Respiration S10 1pp

Topic 6 Part A Cellular Respiration S10 1pp - Cellular...

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1 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Topic 6 Part A Chapter 9
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2 Objectives I To understand the structure of a mitochondrion and how it relates to its function To know the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph To know what cellular respiration is, and the differences between substrate-level phosphorylation, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation To know the structure of ATP, how it drives reactions and how it is synthesized To know what NAD + /NADH and FADH 2 is To know the stages of glucose catabolism, where they occur and how they are linked To know the 4 stages and 3 overall changes in glycolysis To know why NADH is essential, and how it is recycled in cells
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3 Objectives II To understand how pyruvate is oxidized, where this occurs and how this reaction acts as a switching point To know what the Krebs cycle is, where it occurs, what the two broad steps are and what the products of this cycle are To know what the components of the electron transport chain are and how they generate ATP To know what the ATP yield of aerobic respiration is To know what the major regulatory points in the aerobic respiration pathway are, and to know what regulates the enzymes at these points in the pathway To know how proteins and fats enter aerobic respiration To know what fermentation is, the two types of fermentation and when it operates
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4 Key Words and Phrases Mitochondria; outer mitochondrial membrane; inner mitoch- ondrial membrane; inter-membrane space; crista; matrix Autotroph; heterotroph; digestion; catabolism Cellular respiration; substrate-level phosphorylation; aerobic respiration; anaerobic respiration; fermentation; ATP; ATP synthase; NAD + /NADH; FAD/FADH 2 Glycolysis; pyruvate oxidation; Krebs cycle; electron transport chain Glucose; pyruvate dehydrogenase; acetyl-CoA; phosphofructokinase; citrate synthetase Chemiosmosis; ATP yield; H + pump; H + gradient; proton motive force; ATP:ADP ratio Deamination; β -oxidation; ethanol fermentation; lactic acid fermentation
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5 Outline Cellular Energy Harvest Cellular Respiration Glycolysis Oxidation of Pyruvate Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Regulation of cellular respiration Catabolism of Protein and Fat Fermentation
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6 OVERVIEW Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals, such as the giant panda, obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms that eat plants Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis generates O 2 and organic molecules, which are used in cellular respiration Cells use chemical energy stored in organic molecules to regenerate ATP, which powers work
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7 Energy Cycle of Biological Systems
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