Topic 11 - DNA BIO 188 S10 1pp

Topic 11 - DNA BIO 188 S10 1pp - DNA: The Genetic Material...

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1 DNA: The Genetic Material Topic 11 Chapter 16
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2 OBJECTIVES I To know or understand: Major milestones in the history of DNA research and how the Herschey-Chase experiment unambiguously defines DNA as the hereditary information The structure of a nucleic acid/nucleotide The directionality of nucleic acid strands and how this relates to nucleotide structure The 3-dimensional structure of DNA Complimentarity and semi-conservative replication
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3 OBJECTIVES II The mechanism of replication and its protein components Know the functions of DNA polymerase Know the sequence of 5 events in the replication process Know the structure of the replication fork Know the three stages of replication How do eukaryotes solve the problem of linear ends Implications? Know what causes DNA damage ad how it can be repaired
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4 Key Words and Key Phrases Transformation; bacteriophage; Griffith experiment; Hershey Chase experiment; Meselson-Stahl experiment Nucleic acid; nucleotide; dehydration synthesis; phosphodiester bond; purine; pyrimidine; Chargaff’s rule; 5’-end; 3’-end; 5’ --> 3’ direction; Watson and Crick double helix model; antiparallel Complimentarity; semi-conservative replication; replication origin; DNA polymerase; primer; template; endonuclease; exonuclease; proof-reading function; RNA polymerase / DNA primase; DNA ligase; DNA gyrase; leading strand; lagging strand; replication fork; replisome; initiation; elongation; termination Telomere; telomerase; DNA repair; specific repair; nonspecific repair; photorepair; excision repair
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5 Outline Genetic Material Experiments - history Chemical Nature of Nucleic Acids Three-Dimensional Structure of DNA Watson and Crick Replication Semi Conservative Replication Process Eukaryotic DNA Replication One-Gene/One-Polypeptide Hypothesis
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6 OVERVIEW In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick introduced an elegant double-helical model for the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA DNA, the substance of inheritance, is the most celebrated molecule of our time Hereditary information is encoded in DNA and reproduced in all cells of the body This DNA program directs the development of biochemical, anatomical, physiological, and (to some extent) behavioral traits
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7
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8 Defining DNA as the Molecular Mechanism of Inheritance Early in the 20th century, the identification of the molecules of inheritance loomed as a major challenge to biologists T. H. Morgan’s group showed that genes are located on chromosomes protein—became candidates for the genetic material Key factor in determining the genetic material was choosing appropriate experimental organisms Role of DNA in heredity was first discovered by studying bacteria and the viruses that infect them
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9 The discovery of the genetic role of DNA began with research by Frederick Griffith in 1928
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2010 for the course BIO 188 taught by Professor Capco during the Spring '08 term at ASU.

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Topic 11 - DNA BIO 188 S10 1pp - DNA: The Genetic Material...

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