Topic 12A - From gene to protein - Transcription S10 1pp

Topic 12A - From gene to protein - Transcription S10 1pp -...

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1 From Gene to Protein Topic 12 Part A - Transcription Chapter 17
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2 Objectives I Know the different types of RNA Know the central dogma of gene expression Know the difference between transcription and translation Know what a codon is and how this relates to the reading frame Know the difference between the coding strand and the template strand of DNA Know what a transcription unit is and the roles of the promoter, start site and terminator within the transcription unit Know the sequence of events and the enzymes involved in prokaryotic transcription Know what the RNA polymerase holoenzyme is and how RNA pol works Know the 3 broad ways in which eukaryotic transcription differs from prokaryotic transcription
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3 Objectives II Know the difference between introns and exons Know how mature mRNA is spliced and what a splicesome is Know what alternate splicing is
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4 Key Words and Key Phrases Ribosomal RNA (rRNA); transfer RNA (tRNA); messenger RNA (mRNA); srpRNA; miRNA; central dogma; transcription; translation; gene expression; codons; triplet code RNA polymerase; template/antisense strand; coding/sense strand; promoter; terminator; start site; transcription unit; initiation; elongation; termination; transcription bubble; primary transcript; mature transcript; post-transcriptional modifications; 5’ cap; 3’ poly-A tail Activating enzymes; start and stop signals; nonsense codons; initiation; initiation complex; initiation factors; reading frame; elongation; translocation; termination; release factors Introns; exons; small nuclear ribonuclearproteins (snRNPs); splicesomes; alternative splicing
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5 Outline Cells Use RNA to Make Protein Gene Expression Genetic Code Transcription Translation Spliced Genes Introns and Exons Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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6 Introduction DNA = heritable material passed from one cell to another during cell division This is information (a blueprint) that is passed between generations Cells use the information in DNA to make proteins Different proteins have different functions and they confer different characteristics on different cell types Proteins are the “tools” of heredity How does this occur?
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7 Nature of Genes Garrod (1909) was first to suggest genes dictate phenotype Suggested this based on inherited disease Disease state reflected a person’s inability to make a particular enzyme Alkaptonuria = black urine caused by presence of alkapton Linking genes to enzymes required understanding that cells synthesize and degrade molecules in a series of steps, a metabolic pathway
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8 Nutritional Mutants in Neurospora George Beadle and Edward Tatum used X-rays to induce genetic mutations in bread mold Looked for mutants that were unable to survive on minimal medium inability to survive reflects inability to synthesize certain molecules essential for life (e.g. one of the 20 amino acids for
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Topic 12A - From gene to protein - Transcription S10 1pp -...

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