2Water%26MacromolPDF

2Water%26MacromolPDF - Water Key Concepts Covered by Exams...

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Water
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Key Concepts Covered by Exams Water & Carbon-based Macromolecules Be able to relate the hydrogen bond to (four) properties of water (with examples) that are based on the ability of water to form hydrogen bonds and are key to supporting life on Earth Be able to sort examples from lecture into hydrophilic (polar) and hydrophobic (nonpolar) substances (Example: Vitamins, and other examples from later lectures) Principle of formation (water removal) and breakdown (water addition) of all biologically important macromolecules
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Water is a polar molecule with negative and positive sides . (Oxygen attracts electrons more strongly than Hydrogen, causing Oxygen to take on a partial negative charge and the Hydrogen atoms to take on partial positive charges) Fig. 2.13 δ δ + δ + H H O H 2 O
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A hydrogen bond can be formed by electrical attraction of a partially-positive H atom to a partially-negative atom in another molecule. http://www.mie.utoronto.ca/labs/lcdlab/biopic/fig/2.9.jpg δ + δ - δ + δ + δ + δ - δ− δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + Fig. 2.16 δ−
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δ δ + δ + H H O H 2 O The unequal sharing of electrons within a water molecule causes the water molecule to have A) a net electrical charge of +2 B) a net electrical charge of +1 C) no net electrical charge
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Four properties of water key to supporting life on Earth based on ability of water to form hydrogen bonds [among water molecules (1-3) or with other molecules (4)] . 1. Cohesion Again, all of this results from the polarity of water molecules! And all of this is due to the hydrogen bond ! 2. Moderation of temperature 3. Insulation of bodies of water by floating ice 4. The solvent of life
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Hydrogen bonding holds water molecules together. Fig. 3.6 Liquid water 1. Cohesion among water molecules Cohesion among water molecules provides a stretchable liquid.
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Cohesion of water molecules Example 1: Water strider walks on water Fig. 3.4 Fig. 3.4
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Water-conducting cells Adhesion Cohesion 150 µ m Direction of water movement Cohesion Example 2: Pulling water up trees Fig. 3.3
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