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3CarbsWA09PDF - Today Carbohydrates Relationship of...

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Today: Carbohydrates Relationship of carbohydrates to important Real- World Issues : •Diet and health : The issue of “good” and “bad” carbohydrates and what these are •Renewable energy/fuel sources, e.g. biofuels : Ethanol from sugars versus starch versus cellulose
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Key Concepts Covered by Exams Carbohydrates Recognize three specific examples (from lecture) each for mono-, di-, and polysaccharides (and know that a hexose is a 6-carbon monosaccharide) Be able to deduce formula of sugars composed of more than one monosaccharide Be able to relate physiological effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to health concerns Be able to relate lactose intolerance to differences among human populations Understand differences in the functions of starch, glycogen, and cellulose and in the ability of different organisms to digest these polysaccharides “Good and “bad carbohydrates: Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) Role of insulin in blood sugar regulation Be able to relate glycemic load from diet to cell division and inflammation Be able to relate different types of carbohydrate-based biofuels (based on sucrose vs. starch vs. cellulose) to technological challenges and environmental impacts
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Carbohydrate macromolecules are made from simple sugars The names of carbohydrates often end in “ ose ”, as for the hexose sugars (with 6 C), glucose , fructose , and galactose . Fig. 5.3 Fructose Glucose Galactose Hexoses (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Simple sugars generally have several CHOH units : I H - C - OH (CHOH) n I
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Fig. 5.4 (b) Glucose While sugars can exist as chains, they form rings in the cell.
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(b) Dehydration reaction (-H 2 O) in the synthesis of sucrose Glucose Fructose Sucrose Maltose Glucose Glucose (a) Dehydration reaction (-H 2 O) in the synthesis of maltose Fig. 5.5 Monosaccharides Disaccharides
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What is the formula for a disaccharide made from two hexoses? A) C 2 H 4 O 2 B) C 6 H 12 O 6 C) C 12 H 24 O 12 D) C 12 H 22 O 11 Rather than memorizing answer, you can deduce answer by combining pieces you already know: Hexose has 6 carbons I Carbohydrates have general formula of H-C-OH or (CH 2 O) n C 6 H 12 O 6 for a hexose I When two hexoses are connected, one H 2 O molecule comes out:
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Mono saccharides and di saccharides Important di saccharides: Table sugar (transport sugar in plants) = sucrose (1 glucose + 1 fructose) Milk sugar = lactose (1 glucose + 1 galactose); Malt sugar = maltose (2 x glucose) Important mono saccharides: Glucose (important for energy metabolism), fructose , galactose
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The Story of High Fructose Corn Syrup
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• Consumption of soda up 200% in 30 years: HFCS primary sweetener in regular soft drinks Ancestral human sugar consumption was low . • In 2000, annual sugar consumption 152 lbs per adult in US
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Background on HFCS HFCS formula: 55% fructose / 45% glucose ; since human taste buds highly sensitive to fructose, mix tastes sweeter than natural 1:1 mix from sucrose.
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