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4LipidsWAPDF - Lipids Fats Phospholipids Steroids Key...

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Lipids: Fats, Phospholipids, Steroids
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Key Concepts Covered by Exams Lipids Understand the key features of saturated fats, trans fats, monounsaturated fats, and omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fats and their roles in health and disease Know and understand the ‘ideal overall fat composition and the omega 6:3 ratio for the human diet Be able to relate polyunsaturated fats to inflammation Understand that several food classes (fats, carbohydrates, fruit/vegetable) interact in determining disease risk Know the building blocks of a fat, of a phospholipid, and of a steroid Know the relative energy content of fats versus carbohydrates (or proteins), and be able to relate this to the energy stores used in different organisms and tissues Be able to classify cholesterol as a steroid and to link it to its origin in the diet and its role as precursor for other important steroids Understand the difference in metabolism between natural and anabolic steroids
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What fats in the typical modern, western diet should be reduced? A) Saturated fats B) Trans fats C) Some unsaturated fats D) A and B only E) A, B, and C
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The typical modern, western diet is excessively high in the following fats/oils A) Animal fat B) Canola oil C) Corn oil D) A and B E) A and C
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What best describes your information (before this class) about omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids? A) I haven’t heard much yet B) I have heard that omega-3 fatty acids are important for human health C) I have heard that the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids matters D) B and C
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Functions of dietary fats Energy supply (all fats) Building blocks for body (omega-6 & omega-3 fatty acids needed for brain / heart muscle …) Diet-gene interaction (omega-6 & omega-3 fatty acids converted to hormone messengers) Development: Fats in mother’s diet determine which type of breast cells develop in fetus; affects risk for breast cancer later in life Physiology: Dietary fats directly control inflammation
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Saturated and Unsaturated Fats Saturated fats are solid Unsaturated fats are liquid How can you tell them apart?
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Real World Connection: Saturated and Unsaturated Fats in the News Which is better for your health? Consumption of saturated fats raises cholesterol levels . Most of the cholesterol in human body is synthesized from saturated fats (rather than coming from dietary cholesterol directly)!
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(a) Saturated fatty acid Stearic acid (b) Monounsaturated fatty acid Oleic acid Fig. 5.12 Recommended changes : Reduce saturated , trans , and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Increase monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and omega-3 PUFAs.
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http://www.supplementquality.com/news/fatty_acid_structure.html MUFAs PUFA Recommended changes : Reduce saturated, trans , and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
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