5Nucleic%26ProteinsWA09PDF

5Nucleic%26ProteinsWA09PDF - Key Concepts Covered by Exams...

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Unformatted text preview: Key Concepts Covered by Exams Nucleic Acids & Proteins Be able to match functions of proteins with specific examples Be able to identify the sequence of information flow from DNA to RNA to proteins Recognize principal parts of a nucleotide (phosphate, monosaccharide, nitrogenous base) Be able to relate major chemical elements in nucleic acids and proteins to the composition of the biosphere and to physiological deficiency symptoms Be able to relate primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structure to protein function and the specific example of sickle cell anemia Diet-gene interaction : Dietary (environmental) factors activate genes that make life-and-death decisions What are genes ? DNA - hereditary information What information do genes pass on? Blueprints for making proteins Diet-gene interaction : Dietary (environmental) factors activate genes that make life-and-death decisions What are genes ? DNA - hereditary information What information do genes pass on? Blueprints for making proteins Functions of Proteins with examples Proteins have many diverse functions; they are the most functionally diverse type of macromolecules 1. Structural support (e.g. silk of spider webs) 2. Storage of energy & nitrogen (e.g. egg albumin) 3. Transport of substances within organisms (e.g. hemoglobin) or across membranes (e.g. aquaporins) 4. Signaling ; long-distance (e.g. insulin) or short- distance; gene-regulatory proteins; receptor proteins 5. Defense against invading pathogens (antibodies in immune system) 6. Movement (e.g. muscle proteins) 7. Metabolic catalysts (enzymes) Enzymes are proteins . Properties of Enzymes Fig. 8.16 Enzymes are catalysts . Catalysts speed up chemical reactions (but do not provide energy for reactions) mRNA Synthesis of mRNA in the nucleus DNA NUCLEUS mRNA CYTOPLASM Movement of mRNA into cytoplasm via nuclear pore Ribosome Amino acids Polypeptide Synthesis of protein 1 2 3 Information flow from genetic information encoded as DNA (genes) to RNA (DNA & RNA are both nucleic acids) and on to protein synthesis. Fig. 5.26 Different sugar! For DNA, sugar = deoxyribose For RNA, sugar = ribose Structure of Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids (polymers) formed from nucleotides- composed of monosaccharide sugar , phosphate group , and nitrogenous base Long bases (= purines) Short bases (= pyrimidines) Fig. 5.27 (a) Polynucleotide, or nucleic acid (b) Nucleotide Nitrogenous base Phosphate group Sugar (pentose) Sugar-phosphate backbones Base pair (joined by hydrogen bonding)...
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course BIO BIO taught by Professor Johnson during the Fall '10 term at Colorado.

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5Nucleic%26ProteinsWA09PDF - Key Concepts Covered by Exams...

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