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6CellsWA09PDF - Key Concepts Covered by Exams Tour of the...

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Key Concepts Covered by Exams Tour of the Cell (Structures involved in information flow from nucleus to targets) Relate components of the endomembrane system (nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, transport vesicles, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, plasma membrane) to their functions and interactions Relate other cellular structures discussed in lecture (nuclear pores, free and bound ribosomes, cytoskeleton) to their functions Relate rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum to their respective functions and match with examples of cells specializing in these respective functions Relate lysosomal function to human disease
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Let’s take a closer look: From nucleus to protein synthesis and beyond mRNA Synthesis of mRNA in the nucleus DNA NUCLEUS mRNA CYTOPLASM Movement of mRNA into cytoplasm via nuclear pore Ribosome Amino acids Polypeptide Synthesis of protein 1 2 3 Fig. 5.26
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The Nucleus Pores allow information transfer into and out of nucleus: nuclear pores Fig. 6.10
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Which of the following CAN pass through the pores of the nuclear envelope (the membrane around the eukaryotic nucleus)? A) RNA B) gene regulatory factors C) some viruses D) only A and B E) A, B, and C
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The Nucleus Ribosomes Fig. 6.10 Ribosome: site of protein synthesis in cell Some ribosomes bound to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Some free ribosomes WHY? Ribosome Amino acids Polypeptide Fig. 5.26
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Free ribosomes, floating in cytoplasm, make proteins for use in same cell - no need to wrap in membrane sack (vesicle). Fig. 6.11 Bound ribosomes, attached to ER membrane, make proteins that get wrapped in membrane vesicles for export ( secretion ) to other cells or for use in vesicles in same cell.
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The endomembrane system for synthesis & export of proteins Fig. 6.16 Let’s follow path of a protein hormone from synthesis to export Example: Tracking an insulin molecule
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1. DNA for insulin copied into mRNA and exported from nucleus 2. Insulin synthesized by ribosomes on rough ER 3. Insulin protein enters inside of ER and moves to outermost membrane Fig. 6.16
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4. Insulin protein packaged into transport vesicles and transferred to near side of Golgi apparatus 5. Transport vesicles fuse to form first flat sacks of Golgi apparatus Fig. 6.16
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6. Processed in Golgi apparatus into mature protein Fig. 6.16 What happens in Golgi? 7. Packaged into transport vesicles at opposite side of Golgi apparatus and transported to plasma membrane
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For insulin: The initially synthesized, larger form of insulin (proinsulin) is cut to size of final protein in Golgi apparatus Other proteins are modified in the Golgi apparatus by having sugars added to them (glycation): Several (first 3) hormones of pituitary gland are glycoproteins Fig. 45.8
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The entire process from nucleus to plasma membrane!
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