10RespirationWA09PDF

10RespirationWA09PDF - Key Concepts Covered on Exam...

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Key Concepts Covered on Exam Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis & fermentation and principles of mitochondrial ATP formation Be able to contrast the different locations, differential dependence on oxygen, and different ATP energy yields of glycolysis plus fermentation versus glycolysis plus aerobic respiration (citric acid cycle, electron transport, ATP synthase) Understand the role of fermentation as well as the 2 types of fermentation and their practical applications Principal differences between fast-twitch glycolytic and slow-twitch oxidative muscle fibers Understand that several classes of macromolecules can be used as fuels in cellular respiration Understand that energy is transferred from food molecules to energy carriers (NADH and FADH 2 ) by transfer of H (electrons and H + ) Be able to apply the model of the hydroelectric dam to ATP formation by ATP synthase Understand heat generation in metabolism and the role of uncouplers Understand why carbon monoxide and cyanide are toxic
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Food-to-Energy Fig. 9.1 Fig. 8.3 Respiration
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Cellular respiration breaks down energy-rich molecules to CO 2 and water, removing their energy. Fig. 9.2 Light energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO 2 + H 2 O Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cellular work Heat energy ATP High energy Low energy C-H bond!!
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Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate CYTOSOL MITOCHONDRION Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Fig. 9.19 • First part of cellular respiration: Glycolysis outside mitochondria From glucose (6 C) to 2 pyruvate (3 C)
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Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate CYTOSOL No O 2 present: Fermentation O 2 present: Aerobic cellular respiration MITOCHONDRION Acetyl CoA Ethanol or lactate Citric acid cycle Fig. 9.19 Only when oxygen present , can glucose be broken down completely in mitochondria for high energy yield
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Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate CYTOSOL No O 2 present: Fermentation MITOCHONDRION Acetyl CoA Ethanol or lactate Citric acid cycle Fig. 9.19
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(When oxygen is present, NADH is cashed in for lots of ATP in mitochondria and is reconverted to NAD + …) Without oxygen, the NADH cannot be used in mitochondria and will accumulate. If the reaction stopped at pyruvate, A) glycolysis would continue to produce ATP B) glycolysis would stop because the cell would run out of NAD + Glycolysis 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 NADH 2 NAD + Fig. 9.18
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Alcoholic fermentation (forms ethanol plus CO 2 ) by yeasts and bacteria under anaerobic conditions Glycolysis & fermentation without oxygen ( anaerobic conditions) 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 NADH 2 NAD + + 2 H + CO 2 2 Acetaldehyde 2 Ethanol (a) Alcohol fermentation 2 Fig. 9.18
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Glycolysis and fermentation Fermentation to ethanol 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 NADH 2 NAD + + 2 H + CO 2 2 Acetaldehyde 2 Ethanol (a) Alcohol fermentation 2 Fig. 9.18(a) Yeasts use alcoholic fermentation to convert hexoses (from sugar cane sucrose or corn starch or cellulose) into ethanol for fuels Production of Foods & Fuels
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Alcohol fermentation (forms ethanol plus CO 2 )
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course BIO BIO taught by Professor Johnson during the Fall '10 term at Colorado.

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10RespirationWA09PDF - Key Concepts Covered on Exam...

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