Bio Foundations Lectures

Bio Foundations Lectures - Bio Foundations-Lecture 1 Based...

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Bio Foundations-Lecture 1 Based on structural differences, organisms were initially classified into two domains: Eukaryotes- have a double membrane-bound nucleus; various components are compartmentalized by membranes Prokaryotes- no true nucleus, instead, the genetic material is localized in an area of the cytoplasm called the “nucleoid.” Simple structure; is one big compartment Bacteria performs all functions as eukaryotes, and more. Diffusion : the process which molecules move through membrane bound regions from higher concentrations to areas of lower concentrations. Functionally, the nucleus holds genetic material (chromosomes). Genetic information is in the DNA molecule. The chromosomes carry the genes. The DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into complex structures called chromosomes. Eukaryotes carry their DNA in a number of chromosomes. A pair of chromosomes is considered to be a pair only if they both carry the same gene, but do not have to be identical. (eye color gene, height gene. ..) The DNA in prokaryotes are usually found as one of more circular molecules, with a relatively small amount of proteins associated with it. All the information is held in one cell chromosome. There are no pairs. To Reproduce: Prokaryotes replicate their DNA and then divide in a process called binary fission. Eukaryotes replicate their DNA, the divide and distribute the chromosomes to daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis. A mutation can be overlooked if there are other chromosomes containing the same genes present. Prokaryotes don’t have that option. The plasma membrane has a lipid bilayer surrounded with another membrane with a space (animal cells only??) in between. Structurally, the plasma membrane is made up of various proteins, phospholipids, and lipids. The nuclear envelope has small openings called pores, which water-soluble molecules can move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. To make a copy of DNA: Transcription: making a messenger RNA copy of the gene and then… Translating into proteins (ribosome).
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In prokaryotes, these 2 steps occur simultaneously Cannot happen simultaneously in eukaryotes because transcription occurs in nucleus which is membrane-bound and the ribosomes are outside in the cytoplasm. (the problem is a geographical issue) Mitochondira: double membrane bound. Christae are present to increase the surface area, which allows for more ATP synthesis. Rough ER:
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Bio Foundations Lectures - Bio Foundations-Lecture 1 Based...

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