Biology - Lab Midterm Study Guide

Biology - Lab Midterm Study Guide - Lab 1 Browsers(deer...

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Lab 1 Browsers (deer) – chisel-like incisors used nipping off leaves and branches Carnivores (lions) – have pointed canine teeth for tearing off chunks of meat Herbivores (cows) – have broad, flat molars for grinding grass Insectivores (bats) – have small, pointed teeth for pulverizing their prey Tongue – attached to the epiglottis and is used to mash food against the hard palate Papillae – scattered over the surface of the tongue and contain taste buds. (Sweet on the tip, salt and sour on the sides, and bitter in the back) Pharynx – where the food and air passages cross Nasopharynx – which air comes into the pharynx through the nasal passages Glottis – opening into the trachea Epiglottis – collar-like flap surrounding the glottis The opening of the esophagus – tube of the digestive track which leads through the neck and thorax Pharyno-esophageal sphincter – beginning part of the esophagus Diaphragm – muscular partition that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities Peristalis – waves of muscular contraction move the food down the esophagus to the stomach Gastroesophagel sphincter – esophagus to stomach Stomach – continues the mechanical breakup of food, also secretes mucus (protection) and gastric juice (mixture of HCl and enzymes). Pepsin – an enzyme which breaks down proteins Spleen – part of the lymph and immune system; it filters blood, stores blood cells for emergencies, and produces antibodies that combat infection Pyloric sphincter – stomach to small intestine Small Intestine – chemical breakdown and absorption of food into the blood stream Villi – increase the internal surface area available for food for the blood stream Other Animals Sharks – have a spiral valve, the food material follows a winding course and is thus exposed to more surface area. Flatworms – almost the entire body of the flatworm is the digestive tract Tadpoles – have a coiled intestinal tract which is much longer than most other animals because they need to break down cellulose Bile – salt that emulsifies (breaks up) fat. But Bile is not a protein, so it is not an enzyme
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Pancreas – release enzyme which digest all three classes of food: proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Also the Islets of Langerhans produce insulin, the hormone that regulates the concentration of sugar in the blood) Liver – maintains blood sugar levels by storing and releasing glucose, filters out and detoxifies ammonia and other harmful compounds from the blood stream, role in digestion is to release bile salts into the small intestine. Bile breaks large globules of fat into smaller droplets. Gall Bladder – stores bile Common Bile Duct – carries bile to the duodenum of the small intestine Ileocolic Sphincter – small intestine to large intestine Small intestine joins the large intestine at a T-intersection (One side = cecum, in humans appendix) not important in humans but in mammals that eat a lot of plant material, the cecum houses large numbers of
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Biology - Lab Midterm Study Guide - Lab 1 Browsers(deer...

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