General Biology13howgeneswork

General Biology13howgeneswork - General Biology Chapter 13...

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General Biology Chapter 13 HOW GENES WORK A. FROM GENE TO PROTEIN: The Central Dogma: DNA RNA Protein DNA RNA is the first stage and is the process of transcription. DNA is transcribed into the language of RNA. a. The codons in DNA are ATCG (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine). b. The codons are transcribed into the language of RNA, AUCG (thymine is changed to uracil). TRANSCRIPTION : The DNA helix is unwound and one strand is used as the “template” strand from which the RNA is to be transcribed. A protein called RNA polymerase binds to the template strand of DNA at a particular spot on the template called the promoter region . As RNA polymerase moves along the template it adds complimentary RNA bases according to the instructions of the template DNA. The growing strand of RNA ends when RNA polymerase reaches the terminator sequence in the DNA. After some modification of the resultant RNA the end result is mRNA or messenger RNA to be used in the next step, translation. MODIFICATION OF RNA : After transcription the RNA needs some modification. Sections of the RNA are unusable in the translation process. The RNA will consists of a series of introns and exons in the eukaryotic genome. Introns are extra bases from the DNA that are not needed in the final mRNA
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Brey during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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General Biology13howgeneswork - General Biology Chapter 13...

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