Biology 102 Notes

Biology 102 Notes - Biology 102 Notes Metabolism the sum...

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Biology 102 Notes Metabolism – the sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in the cell Anabolic – building up, constructive An example of an anabolic reaction is photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Product is larger than building blocks = ANABOLIC Catabolic – breaking down, destructive An example of a catabolic reaction is aerobic respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP ENERGY Organic Molecule – must have a Carbon and Hydrogen as a minimum in its structure Inorganic Molecule – will have either Carbon or Hydrogen, NOT BOTH, or neither I. CARBOHYDRATES (will have C and H, but also O) A. Monosaccharides (simple sugars) C 1 H 2 O 1 Ex. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 Carbohydrates are a source of energy for the body Covalent Bond – sharing of electrons C 4 O 2 H 1 OH Hydroxyl Group -ose Carbohydrate Fructose (found in fruits) C 6 H 12 O 6 Grape Sugar Chlorophyll,Light H – C = O H – C – OH HO – C – H H – C – OH H – C – OH H 2 – C – OH
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Isomer – same, but different structure Glucose Fructose H – C = O Aldehyde H – C – OH HO – C – H H – C – OH H – C – OH H 2 – C – OH - Carbonyl C = O - Fructose is sweeter because of the way it attaches to our taste receptors. - High Fructose Corn Syrup makes you obese since your body does not know what to do with it and just stores it as fat. B. Disaccharides (2 simple sugars that have bonded together) Ex. Sucrose (table sugar) Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 bonds with Fructose C 6 H 12 O 6 C 12 H 24 O 12 - H 2 O dehydration synthesis occurs in the formation of sucrose Sucrose C 12 H 22 O 11 -This is ANABOLIC ACTIVITY -Monosaccharides 4 cal / g 1 tsp sugar = 16 calories 3 tsp = 1 Tbsp -Even though sucrose has fructose, fructose alone is sweeter because of the way it fits -When glucose and fructose bong together, they form a glycosidic bond with the removal of H 2 O -Sucrose to go to building blocks (fructose and glucose) needs water Hydrolysis -Sucrose, Maltose, and Lactose are ISOMERS -Sweetness depends on how the sugar attaches to the taste buds/receptors C. Polysaccharides Cellulose, Chitin Cellulose (1500 Glucose) humans don’t have the enzymes to break it down Fiber – indigestible plant material for example cellulose cannot be digested because we don’t have the enzymes Chitin – found in animals (HARD) exoskeleton, shell of an insect H 2 – C – OH C = O Ketone HO – C – H H – C – OH H – C – OH H 2 – C – OH
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Starch, Glycogen (1000 Glucose) stored in muscles and liver (source of energy), we can only get energy because we have the enzymes to break it down -Monosaccharides and Disaccharides are a source of ENERGY, while only some Polysaccharides are a source of ENERGY (cellulose and chitin are for STRUCTURE ) II. Lipids 9 calories / gram Monomer (building block, glucose) vs. Polymer (very big molecule, starch) Starch is a polymer because 1000 glucose (monomer) make it 9 calories / gram - Lipids are organic molecules (C, H, O), they contain O but very little
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Brey during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Biology 102 Notes - Biology 102 Notes Metabolism the sum...

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