GENERAL BIOLOGY14GeneTech

GENERAL BIOLOGY14GeneTech - GENERAL BIOLOGY Chapter 14 Gene...

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GENERAL BIOLOGY Chapter 14 Gene Technology 1. GENETIC ENGINEERING Genetic engineering is the process of moving genes from one organism to another. Genetic engineering has been used in agriculture and animal farming to make bigger, better, versions of the original. Plants have been altered to be resistant to pests. Animals are engineered to produce larger versions. Bacteria can produce drugs for human use. Genetic engineering was initially attempted to correct defective genes in the disorder SCID (severe combined immune deficiency syndrome) Restriction enzymes are used by scientists to cleave (cut) DNA at specific sites. This enables the researcher to extract precise sections of the DNA targeted for therapy or research. Eco R1 is one such restriction enzyme. Eco R1 recognizes a specific sequence in the DNA and cleaves that sequence leaving sticky ends. The “sticky” ends are staggered not blunt. The result is a piece of the DNA removed from the original strand by the restriction enzyme. This piece of DNA is now introduced to a second piece of DNA from another source. This second molecule of DNA has also been cut with Eco R1 and has the same sticky ends as our piece and is complementary to it. The piece of DNA from source 1 is joined with the molecule from source 2 with DNA ligase. The result is Recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is a form of artificial DNA from two or more sources. The four stages of a genetic engineering experiment: 1) Cleaving DNA: In order to isolate the gene of interest restriction enzymes are needed. Multiple fragments may be obtained by using restriction enzymes. These fragments can be separated according to size using gel electrophoresis. DNA fragments are negatively charged due to their phosphate groups and migrate in the gel in an electrical current. The smaller fragments migrate faster and farther than the larger fragments. These fragments appear as bands in an electrophoresis gel.
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