General Biology11Mendel

General Biology11Mendel - General Biology Chapter 11...

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General Biology Chapter 11 Foundations of Genetics 1. Gregor Mendel began the science of genetics working on garden pea plants. He started by allowing each to self-fertilize ensuring each variety was true-breeding and contained no varieties of another trait. He could then begin to add variations. Since there were many varieties of plants he could choose traits with which to cross breed. Cross breeding two traits (purple v. white flowers) is a monohybrid cross. Monohybrid denotes crossing for one trait only. The first cross (pollination) between P v. W flowers is called the P generation for “parental”. The resulting offspring is called the F1 generation for “filial” or first generation. All offspring would be purple. Allowing the offspring to self-fertilize would result in the F2 generation. The resulting offspring would display a 3:1 ratio. Each would have a 75% chance of being purple, 25% chance of being white. These results can be shown on Punnett Squares. The Punnett square gives the probability for each resultant offspring. Also, this shows us the differences in dominant and recessive genes. While the two flowers colors were crossed during the P generation, only one was expressed during the F1 generation. This clearly shows that the purple flower was the dominant trait for flower color. Looking at the Punnett square you can see that, although we can see (phenotype) 75% purple flowers in the F2 generation, the actual genotype is quite different. Phenotype
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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General Biology11Mendel - General Biology Chapter 11...

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