Tutorial.02 - New Perspectives on Microsoft Project 2007...

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Unformatted text preview: New Perspectives on Microsoft Project 2007: Creating a Project Schedule In this tutorial you will: Start a new project Examine scheduling defaults Change a project and task calendar Enter and edit tasks, durations, and task dependencies Enter and edit recurring tasks and milestones 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 2 1 In this tutorial you will: Enter lag and lead times View project statistics Create and manipulate summary tasks Develop a work breakdown structure 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 3 JLB Partners Project Goal: Network company computers to easily share resources within a time frame of three months and within a budget of $50,000. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 4 2 New Project & Examining Scheduling Defaults By default, the new project file is scheduled from from a project Start date All tasks are scheduled to begin as soon as possible Project 2007 calculates the project’s Finish date based on the Tasks Durations Dependencies 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 5 Project Information Dialog Box 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 6 3 New Project & Examining Scheduling Defaults When a project is scheduled from a Finish date, such such as conference, all tasks are scheduled to begin as late as possible. In order for the overall project to be started as late as possible and yet still meet the required Finish date. It is often more efficient to wait to start a project until you really need to do work on the project instead of starting too early and wasting resources. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 7 Project Scheduled from Finish Date 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 8 4 The Task Information Dialog Box The Task Information dialog box is a comprehensive ll th collection of all of the information about each task organized into five categories represented by these tabs: General Predecessors Resources Advanced Notes The Task Information dialog box is another view by which you can examine and enter data about a task. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 9 Task Information Dialog Box 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 10 5 Constraints using Task Information late as possible” determine the initial th Constraint type for each task. The initial Constraint type has a tremendous impact on the calculated start and finish dates for each task entered into the project. Always take the time to examine the Project Information dialog box before starting a new project. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 11 Constraint types “as soon as possible or as Examining Project Calendars By default, the entire project, each task, and each resource is scheduled according to the Standard resource is scheduled according to the Standard calendar. The Standard calendar specifies that Monday through Friday are working days with 8 hours of work completed each day. Saturday and Sunday are designated as nonworking days. Calendar can be modified to identify holidays or other nonworking days or times in which work should not be nonworking days or times in which work should not be scheduled. You can also create unique calendars for tasks and resources that do not follow the working and nonworking times specified by the Standard calendar. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 12 6 Creating a New Calendar 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 13 Changing the Project Calendar The project calendar (also called the Standard calenda calendar) is the base calendar used by Project 2007 to schedule new tasks within the project. It specifies working time, the hours during which work can occur, by default 8am-12pm and 1pm-5pm Monday through Friday. It also specifies nonworking time, the hours of a also specifies nonworking time the hours of 24-hour day that are not specified as working time, and other global working time issues (such as a scheduled holiday). 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 14 7 Change Time for a Work Week 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 15 Change Working Time Dialog Box The Legend provides the key to the shading on the calendar. Working days appear as white Nonworking days as light gray Edited working hours with gray diagonal lines If a day of the week such as Monday or Tuesday is edited, the day’s abbreviation is underlined. If an individual day is edited, the day’s number is underlined. Changes to the project calendar can be made at any time during the development of the project. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 16 8 Change Working Time Dialog Box 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 17 Creating a Task Calendar An individual task calendar can be created for any task that does not follow the working and nonworking task that does not follow the working and nonworking times specified by the project calendar. An individual resource calendar can be created for a resource that does not follow the working and nonworking times specified by the project calendar. By assigning a resource to a resource calendar, you allow the resource to be worked on the days and times specified by the resource calendar rather then times specified by the resource calendar rather then the project calendar. By default, all tasks and resource assignments inherit the project calendar unless you specify something else. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 18 9 Creating a Task Calendar Cont’d Emily King has requested that the installation and training not disrupt the daily activities of JLB di JLB Partners. To meet this need, You met with the staff and determined that mornings are generally used for meetings and training could also be scheduled during that time. You create a calendar for the training tasks called Training that allows training tasks to be scheduled only between the hours of 8am12pm. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 19 Creating a Task Calendar Cont’d By default, all new tasks follow the Standard Standard (Project Calendar), but you can easily apply a different calendar by using the Task Information dialog box. It is important that you test the new calendar with a sample task to see the effects of your changes. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 20 10 Changing the Calendar for a Task 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 21 Entering Tasks and Durations in the Entry Table Entering tasks and durations is probably the single most important effort in developing a l useful project file. If tasks are omitted or durations underestimated, the value of the project’s scheduling and cost information is compromised and the success of the project might be jeopardized. The active cell is the cell that you are editing; a dark border surrounds it. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 22 11 Entering Tasks and Durations in the Entry Table Cont’d When you are building a new project, your goal is to enter all of the task names and durations th correctly. If you are creating a file based on chronological tasks, you also want to enter tasks in the order in which they are to be completed. Often you will need to change an existing task or you will need to change an existing task or insert, delete, or move a task. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 23 Editing Tasks and Durations in the Entry Table Project 2007 makes it very easy to edit an existing project project. Many of the editing skills that you gained when editing a spreadsheet will apply to a project table. To change an existing entry, you first navigate to the cell. Once there, you have several options: Retype the entry Edi Edit the entry directly in the cell di Edit an entry in the Entry bar 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 24 12 Editing Tasks and Durations in the Entry Table Cont’d Inserting and deleting tasks are common editing activities activities. As you continue to plan the project by conducting research and meeting with management, you might find that new tasks are required. Sometimes during project planning, you will determine that all or part of a task is no longer required and want to delete it required and want to delete it. Project 2007 makes deleting and editing task cells similar to performing those operations in spreadsheet software. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 25 Entering and Editing Tasks in the Entry Table 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 26 13 Smart Tag If you want to delete an entire task row in Project 2007, you must select the entire row, then press the Delete key. Project 2007 includes a Smart Tag to allow you to specify what you want to delete delete. A list arrow appears when you place the pointer over the Smart Tag. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 27 Smart Tag Selection 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 28 14 Undo and Redo In Project 2007, you can undo only your last action. When you click the Undo button, it changes into a Redo button so that you can redo the action that was previously done previously done. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 29 Copy, Paste and Move Copying, pasting, and moving tasks are important important task editing skills. Project 2007 offers a variety of tools that you can use to accomplish these common tasks, including: Menu bar options Toolbar buttons Quick keystrokes Right-click shortcut menus 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 30 15 Fill Handle If several task durations are the same, you can use either the copy and paste features to quickly use either the copy and paste features to quickly enter the durations or the fill handle to populate cells. If you have used the fill handle in Excel or another spreadsheet program, you will find it a very similar process in Project 2007. The fill handle is a small square that appears in the lower corner of the selected cell the lower corner of the selected cell. When you drag a fill handle, the contents of the active cell are copied. You can also use the fill handle to fill task names. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 31 Fill Handle 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 32 16 Working with Duration Units of Measure Entering and editing durations involves understandin understanding the units of measure available for them. The default unit of measure is day, and therefore “day” does not need to be entered. To use any other unit, you must type the abbreviation. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 33 Units of Measure Abbreviations 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 34 17 Elapsed time time. Some tasks are completed over an elapsed period of time regardless of whether the time is working or nonworking. An example is the task “Allow paint to dry.” The paint will dry in exactly the same amount of time regardless of whether it dries on workday regardless of whether it dries on a workday, a weekend or holiday. If it takes one day to dry, the duration should be entered a 1 ed (for 1 elapsed day). 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 35 Elapsed refers to clock time rather than working Editing Editing Tasks and Durations in Other Views Anything changed in one view is automatically automatically changed in all the other views. You can use the View Bar to quickly switch between views. The way data is displayed differs by view data by and often satisfies different communication and reporting needs as the project develops. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 36 18 Editing Tasks and Durations in Other Views Cont’d Regardless of the view used, you can edit any any task by double-clicking it to open its Task Information dialog box. As you work with Project 2007, you will become more familiar with each view and learn which is the best representation of the data for different purposes. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 37 Entering Recurring Tasks A recurring task is a task that repeats at a regular interval interval. A Monday morning status meeting is a good example of a recurring task that needs to be scheduled for each week of the project. In Project 2007, you can define a recurring task one time using the Recurring Task Information dialog box. Project 2007 then handles the details of scheduling the 2007 then handles the details of scheduling the task on each Monday for the entire project or for the time period you specify. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 38 19 Entering Recurring Tasks Cont’d By default, Project 2007 schedules the recurring task based on the duration of the entire project. th th If you want a recurring task to occur only a certain number of times or end before the project ends, you can enter that information in the Range of occurrence section. You can also change the calendar used or the recurring task in the Calendar section. Recurring tasks can be expanded to show all of the individual tasks within them or collapsed to one line, depending on how the user wants to view the Task Entry table and Gantt Chart. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 39 Recurring Task Information Dialog Box 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 40 20 Entering Milestones A milestone is a task that marks a significant point in time or a progress checkpoint. It has a zero duration and is therefore a symbolic task that is used mainly to communicate progress or to mark the end of a significant phase of the project. Examples include the signing of a contract or the announcement of new product. announcement of a new product. Milestones can also be used to motivate project participants by recognizing accomplishments. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 41 Entering Milestones Cont’d Completing an important deliverable, such as completin completing an office installation, completing training, and so on can be entered as milestones. Many project managers identify milestones early in a project to help build momentum toward the project’s completion. Si Since milestones have no duration, they are th scheduled without regard to working and nonworking time. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 42 21 Milestones 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 43 Understanding Task Dependencies Four task dependencies define the relationships between tasks in a project. Finish-to-Start (FS) Start-to-Start (SS) Finish Finish-to-Finish (FF) (FF) Start-to-Finish (SF) 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 44 22 Task Dependencies 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 45 Understanding Task Dependencies Cont’d By linking tasks in finish-to-start relationships, you you establish the required sequence of tasks. Project 2007 uses these relationships to set start and finish dates for each task. The first task described in the dependency is called the predecessor task. The second task described in the dependency type is called the successor task. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 46 23 Understanding Task Dependencies Cont’d Most dependencies are Finish-to-Start (FS), meanin meaning a certain task (the predecessor) must finish before another task (the successor) can start. In order to use important project management techniques such as critical path analysis, you must determine task dependencies must determine task dependencies. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 47 Creating Task Dependencies Project 2007 makes it easy to create, and remove, FS relationships between tasks by providing the Link Tasks and Unlink Tasks buttons on the Standard toolbar. Task dependencies also can be established in the graphical views. As you would expect, creating task dependencies affects the start and finish dates of the linked tasks. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 48 24 Critical Path Changing and linking tasks also affects the critical critical path. The critical path consists of the tasks that must be completed with the given schedule dates in order for the overall project to be completed in the shortest amount of time. Project 2007 defines the critical path as consisting of those tasks that have zero slack. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 49 Critical Path 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 50 25 Slack Times Total slack is the amount of time by which an activity may be delayed from its scheduled Start date without the delay setting back the entire project. Free slack is the amount of time by which an activity may be delayed which an activity may be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following tasks. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 51 Critical and Non-Critical Tasks In the Network Diagram view, the critical tasks—tasks that are on the critical path— k th th are displayed within a red border. A task that is not on the critical path is a non-critical task, that is, it doesn’t necessarily have to start on its currently scheduled Start date in order for the overall project to be completed on time. The Network Diagram is used mainly to view and analyze the critical path. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 52 26 Using Form View to Create Task Dependencies Sometimes a task is a predecessor to more than one other task, and therefore the process of dragging link lines in a graphical view becomes confusing and difficult. Using a Form view of the project can Form view of the project can make entering many details for a single task easier. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 53 Editing Task Dependencies Task dependencies start as FS dependencies dependencies because that type of dependency is by far the most common relationship between tasks. To change the dependency type, you must open the Task Dependency dialog box. There, you can change the relationship type from FS (finish-to-start) to SS (start-to-start), FF (finish-to-finish), or SF (start-to-finish). 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 54 27 Entering Lag and Lead Times When a project is scheduled from a Start date, lag and lead times refer to an amount of ti time that the second task of a relationship is moved backward (lead) or forward (lag) in time. Lead time moves the second task backward in time so that the two tasks overlap. Lag time is the opposite of lead time. It moves the second task forward in time so that the tasks are further separated. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 55 Lag Lag and Lead Time from Start Date 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 56 28 Lag Time from a Finish Date 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 57 Entering Lag and Lead Times Cont’d Project 2007 combines the concepts of lag and lead times into one term, lag time. ti ti When a project is scheduled from a Start date, positive lag time moves the second task forward in time. Positive lag time is the traditional definition of lag time in general project management discussions. Negative lag time moves the second task backward in time so that the tasks overlap. project management discussions. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin Negative lag time is called lead time in general 58 29 Negative and Positive Lag Time 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 59 Entering Lag and Lead Times Cont’d Lag durations use the same duration units (d for for days, h for hours, and so forth) used for task durations. You also can enter a positive or negative percentage that will calculate the lag as a percentage of the duration of the first task. In finish In a finish-to-start relationship, +25% lag time +25% lag time pushes the second task forward in time. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 60 30 Entering Lag and Lead Times Cont’d The second task will not start until after the first task task is completed plus an additional 25% of the duration of the first task. A -25% lag time pulls the second task backward in time. In this case, the second task will start when the first task is 75% completed. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 61 Check for Lag Time Effects Once the tasks, durations, and relationships are entered you should check the Project are entered, you should check the Project Information dialog box to verify the project’s calculated Finish date if the project is scheduled from a Start date, or calculated Start date if the project is scheduled from a Finish date. When a project is scheduled from a Start date, applying negative lag time to task dependencies that are on the critical path is a common way to shorten the critical path because it allows tasks to overlap. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 62 31 Check for Lag Time Effects Cont’d When you apply negative lag time, the second second task is allowed to start before the first task is completely finished. When a project is scheduled from a Finish date, all tasks have as late as possible schedules and lag time affects the first task rather than the second. th th th 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 63 Check for Lag Time Effects Cont’d Confusing negative and positive lag times is easy, especially when examining them for both project especially when examining them for both a project that is scheduled from a Start date and one scheduled from a Finish date. Remember: Positive lag time always increases the amount of time between tasks. Negative lag time always causes the tasks to lag time causes the tasks to overlap. This rule holds true regardless of whether the project is scheduled from the Start date or the Finish date. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 64 32 Creating a Work Breakdown Structure with Summary Tasks A very important strategy for managing projects well is to organize the work that needs to be done in logical organize the work that needs to be done in a logical manner. A work breakdown structure (WBS) is an outcomeoriented analysis of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project. A WBS is a foundation document in project management because it provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules costs and planning and managing project schedules, costs, and changes. The WBS provides a hierarchy, similar to an organizational chart, to group project work logically. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 65 Work Breakdown Structure 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 66 33 Creating a Work Breakdown Structure with Summary Tasks Cont’d In order to use a WBS in Project 2007, you must organize tasks into summary tasks: groups of tasks that organize tasks into summary tasks: groups of tasks that logically belong together. When developing a new, large project, some project managers prefer to start with broad groupings of summary tasks and then break them down into smaller tasks. Planning a project by starting with broad categories of tasks is called the top tasks is called the top-down method of creating a method creating WBS. Other project managers prefer to list all of the individual tasks, and then collect them into logical groupings using the bottom-up method. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 67 Work Breakdown Structure 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 68 34 Outdenting and Indenting Tasks Use the Outdent button and the Indent button on the Formatting toolbar to create your WBS. Outdenting moves a task to the left (a higher level in the WBS), and indenting moves a task to the right (a lower level in the WBS). Projects can have several levels in the WBS. th WBS Many projects have at least three levels, and some large projects have more. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 69 Summary Task You do not specify a duration for a summary task task because it is calculated based on the it is calculated based on the durations and relationships of the individual tasks within that summary task. Summary tasks are listed in bold text in the Task Entry table and display a Collapse/Expand button to the left of the task so that you can easily show or hide the individual tasks within that summary task summary task. In the Gantt Chart, a summary task bar displays as a solid black line with arrow-like markers that indicate where the summary task starts and stops. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 70 35 Summary Task Cont’d The duration cell of a summary task cannot be directly edited; it is calculated from the durations directly edited; it is calculated from the durations and relationships of the individual summary tasks it contains. Summary tasks not only improve the clarity of the project and calculate the total duration for that phase or major grouping of tasks, but they also help identify areas that are not yet fully developed developed. For larger projects, summary tasks can be nested to create more levels in the WBS to help define and manage all the work required to successfully complete your project. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 71 Creating a Project Summary Task Bar Many project managers like to clearly see the start and finish dates for their projects on the fi th th Gantt Chart and how those dates change as they enter and edit tasks, durations, and dependencies. You can create a summary task bar for the entire project (it appears at the top of th the Gantt Chart) by clicking Tools on the Ch th menu bar and using the Options dialog box. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 72 36 Expanding and Collapsing Tasks Once your project has been organized into summary tasks, you can easily expand (show) and collapse (hide) the individual tasks within each phase. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 73 Using Outline Numbers or Work Breakdown Structure Codes Many people like to number tasks in their WBS to to show the logical groupings of work. Using outline numbers or special work breakdown structure (WBS) code is a way to use an alphanumeric code to represent each task’s position within the hierarchical structure of the project. the project. A WBS code helps identify and group project tasks for project communication, documentation, or accounting purposes. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 74 37 Using Outline Numbers or Work Breakdown Structure Codes Cont’d Project 2007 lets you create and modify a WBS code code with outline numbers. The default WBS code is the task’s outline number, but you can create your own custom WBS code. This numbering system works well when you want to numerically code each task and do not need a different coding scheme for representing the WBS. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 75 Summary A project does not need to be outlined in order to use the WBS column to use the WBS column. The outline helps visually clarify the organization of the project. The ability to expand and collapse different WBS levels enables you to quickly display or print only the information needed. Creating summary tasks, displaying different levels of detail, and adding a column with WBS codes helps you to clarify and enhance the project. 1/22/2010 Presentations Created by C. Hester Microsoft Project 2007 by Bunin 76 38 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course BCIS 3610 taught by Professor Koh during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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