Lec 4 - Lec 4 1 How are cells studied-techniques concept...

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Lec 4 1. How are cells studied? -techniques, concept, thought process A. The scientific method and evidence-based hypothesis testing. B. Two classes of information: Observation: what happens/when? (in most embryotic tissue, if you look at pattern of PSN there seems to be a pattern between PSN and blood vessels. Question is How does that happen?) -Gross/atomic visual observation of the system. Experimentation: how does it happen? discovering mechanisms, and casual relationships. -Intervene on the system, not only what happens and when it happens. Why it happens and why? 3 possibilities in the article. C. Scientific method: Rules of Evidence Observation Hypothesis (question) Experiments 1. establish correlations (plausibility)-find it, relationship between PSN and blood vessels, find it 2. establish necessity (loss of function)- lose it, do something to inhibit or block one of the variable to see what happens, you will find out that the object that you inhibited is needed, establish necessity. 3. establish sufficiency (gain of function)- move it, investigator introduce an influence that will cause an event to occur when it would not normally occur. Results Conclusions Next step=??? 2. Common model systems page 17 figure 1.18 Prokaryotes Bacteria E. coli Eukaryotes Invertebrates: Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiase -single celled organism is the most rudimentary of the eukaryotes, size of yeast genome is about 1/200 out of a human genome so it is simpler -most regulatory enzymes involved in cell division/secretion and various cell function has been preserved so that we can study that easily in the yeast. -single cell organism has a doubling time of 2 hours, rapid cell cycles, simple unicellular system -easy to do genetics, create temp sensitive mutations, number of characteristics that make it a useful model system, practical, easily maintained, much simper in studying basic fundamental things -control cell cycle and basic cell cycle, that the gene that codes for the proteins are involved in that are highly conserved. So important to the basic cell function that there are homologous gene and structure found in mammals. So things that you learned in yeast can be applied to higher forms
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Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans -completely transparent and easy to label cells inside the living organism Insect Drosophila melanogaster
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Lec 4 - Lec 4 1 How are cells studied-techniques concept...

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