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Unformatted text preview: 1 Mini review for final NB: This does not cover all material! Units, Conversions , Powers of 10, Prefixes Errors : Sig Figs, Error propagation Statistics: Normal distribution, ttest, Qtest Equilibrium: Constant, K sp , K H , K w , separation by precipitation, acids & bases, K a , K b Titration: v e, titration curves Acidbase titrations (very) Rough outline Acids & bases buffers, HH equation Electrochemistry Nernst equation ion selective electrode Spectrophotometry Beers Law light, Atomic spectroscopy Mass spectrometry Isotopes, accurate mass fragmentation Chromatography formulas Other techniques NMR, XRay, STM (very) Rough outline Molarity = Moles of solute/Liters of Solution (M) Molality = Moles of solute/Kg of Solvent (m) Mole Fraction = Moles solute/total number of moles Mass % = Mass solute/total mass x 100 Volume % = volume solute/total volume x 100 ppm = parts per million * ppb = parts per billion * Chemical concentrations * mass for solutions, volume for gasses Basic tools 2 Random error Systematic error Basic tools significant figure: The number of significant digits in a quantity is the minimum number of digits needed to express the quantity in scientific notation.. Basic tools Basic tools The real rule: The first uncertain figure is the last significant figure. TIP: In our calculations, we retain extra insignificant digits and round off only at the end. Basic tools 3 A Gaussian curve in which = 0 and = 1. A Gaussian curve whose area is unity is called a normal error curve. In this case, the abscissa, x , is equal to z , defined as z = ( x )/ . Basic tools Basic tools 0.11/0.2 = 0.55 For 5 measurements Q = 0.65 So.....
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course CHEM 150 taught by Professor Buratto during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.
 Spring '08
 BURATTO
 Equilibrium, Bases

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