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ch02 - Ch 2 Elements Compounds and Chemical Reactions Brady...

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Ch 2. Elements, Compounds and Chemical Reactions Brady & Senese, 5 th Ed.
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Index 2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Dalton’s atomic theo 2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles 2.3. The periodic table is used to organize and correlate facts 2.4. Elements can be metals, non-metals, or metalloids 2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their rea 2.6. Molecular compounds contain neutral particles called mol 2.7. Ionic compounds are composed of charged particles called 2.8. The formulas of many ionic compounds can be predicted 2.9. Molecular and ionic compounds are named following a sy
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2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Dalton’s atomic theory 3 Chemical Laws The law of conservation of mass - in a chemical reaction, the mass of the reactants (starting materials) will equal the mass of resulting products Implication: reactions involve the re-organization of materials. The law of definite proportions - the ratio of masses of each element is fixed for a given compound Implication: Each atom has a fixed specific mass, thus in unique combinations, the mass ratio is specific
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2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Dalton’s atomic theory 4 Learning Check: Magnesium burns in oxygen to form magnesium oxide. If 16.88 g of Mg are consumed and 28.00 g of MgO are produced, what mass of oxygen was consumed? O Mass g 11.12 O Mass 16.88)g - (28.00 O Mass 16.88g 28.00g O Mass Mg Mass MgO Mass = = + = + =
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2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Dalton’s atomic theory 5 Matter consists of tiny particles called atoms Atoms are indestructible. In chemical reactions, the atoms rearrange but they do not themselves break apart Dalton’s Atomic Theory +
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2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Dalton’s atomic theory 6 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (Cont.): In any sample of a pure element, all the atoms are identical in mass and other properties. The atoms of different elements differ in mass and other properties. In a given compound the constituent atoms are always present in the same fixed numerical ratio. NaCl has a 1:1 atom ratio on the atomic level and larger
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2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Dalton’s atomic theory 7 Learning Check: In a sample of MgO, there are 16.89 g Mg and 11.11 g O. What mass of O would there be in a sample that contains 2.00 g of Mg? O g 1.32 g 2.00 g 11.11 g 16.89g O g x Mg g 2.00 O g 11.11 Mg g 16.89 compound a for ratio fixed O Mass Mg Mass = × = × = = x x
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2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Dalton’s atomic theory 8 Your Turn! In a sample of an unknown compound, the mass ratio of Cl to C is 47.227g Cl to 4.00 g C. In another sample, there are 0.553 g of Cl. What mass of C would be in this sample? A. 0.1532 g B. 6.52 g C. 0.153 g D. 0.0468 g E. None of these
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2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Dalton’s atomic theory 9 The Law Of Multiple Proportions When two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
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