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ch22 - Ch 22 Organic Compounds Polymers,and Biochemicals...

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Ch 22. Organic Compounds, Polymers,and Biochemicals Brady & Senese, 5th Ed.
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2 22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 22.2. Hydrocarbons consist of only C and H atoms 22.3. Ethers and alcohols are organic derivatives of water 22.4. Amines are organic derivatives of ammonia 22.5. Organic compounds with carbonyl groups include aldehy 22.6. Polymers are composed of many repeating molecular uni 22.7. Most biochemicals are organic compounds 22.8. Nucleic acids carry our genetic information Index
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 3 Organic Compounds Are Diverse Carbon compounds are greatly variant due to the properties of C: C is able to bond multiply C is able to catenate C is able to bond with a wide variety of elements Isomers are possible when there is a carbon chain Combinations of functional groups give great diversity Carbon can form rings
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 4 Carbon Compounds Carbon containing compounds exist in large variety, mostly due to the multiple ways in which C can form bonds Some groups of atoms with similar bonding are commonly seen, called functional groups . Molecules may contain more than one functional group Can form chiral compounds
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 5 VSEPR Structures H C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H Show all atoms Show attachments between atoms but not how many pairs of electrons were used Show the geometric arrangement of the atoms
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 6 Condensed Structures CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 show the general arrangement of the atoms and the number of atoms no effort is made to indicate geometry, types of bonds, or lone pairs
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 7 Alcohols & Ethers Are Polar Contain C, H, and O, all with single bonds. Alcohols end in –OH (R-OH) Ethers have an O atom in the chain (R-O-R’)
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 8 The Carbonyl Group When C in a chain has a double bond to an oxygen, the group is termed a carbonyl Aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and amides all contain carbonyl groups acid carboxylic ketone aldehyde O ' || || || H O C R R O C R H O C R
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 9 Aldehydes & Ketones Are Polar Each has a carbon chain terminating in a carbonyl. Aldehydes then have an added H (RCOH) Ketones have another carbon chain (RCOR’)
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 10 Amines & Amides Are Polar Amines contain -NH 2 on carbon chain (RNHR’) Amides contain NH 2 on carbon chain with carbonyl (RCONH 2 )
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 11 Carboxylic Acids & Esters Are Polar Both have a carbon chain terminating in a carbonyl Carboxylic acids then have an –OH group A combined carbonyl and hydroxyl group form a carboxyl group (RCOOH) Esters then have a singly bound O, then another carbon chain (RCOOR’)
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 12 Identify The Functional Groups Present
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22.1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds
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