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ch15 - Chapter 15 Acids and Bases A Second Look Brady and...

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1 Chapter 15 Acids and Bases: A Second Look Brady and Senese 5th Edition
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2 Index 15.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange proto 15.2 Strengths of Brønsted acids and bases follow per 15.3 Lewis acids and bases involve coordinate covale 15.4 Elements and their oxides demonstrate acid-base 15.5 pH is a measure of the acidity of a solution 15.6 Strong acids and bases are fully dissociated in so
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15.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange protons 3 Br ø nsted Acid/Base Reactions Transfer H + Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H 2 O HCl is the acid – it donate a proton to the base NaOH is the base – it accepts the proton from the acid In water: H 2 O + HCl → H 3 O + + Cl HCl is the acid – it donate a proton to the base Water is the base – it accepts the proton from the acid
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15.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange protons 4 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Products differ by one H + from the reactants to form conjugate Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by one H + . HCN( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) → H 2 O( l ) + CN - ( aq ) Note that in the conjugate pairs, the acid has one more H + than its conjugate base acid base acid base conjugate pair conjugate pair
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15.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange protons 5 Learning Check Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid HCl NH 3 HC 2 H 3 O 2 CN - HF Cl - NH 4 + C 2 H 3 O 2 - HCN F - Identify the conjugate partner for each
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15.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange protons 6 Your Turn How many of the following pairs are conjugate pairs: i. HCN/CN - ii. HCl/Cl - iii. H 2 S/S 2- A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. None of them are conjugate
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15.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange protons 7 Amphoteric Substances Amphoteric ( amphiprotic ) substances are able to act either as Brønsted acid or Brønsted base Anions containing H + (except HSO 4 - ) have the ability to act as either. In water they have a preference, and are usually basic In stronger bases, act as acids In stronger acids, act as bases Water is amphoteric
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15.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange protons 8 Learning Check Write a reaction that shows that HCO 3 - is a Brønsted acid when reacted with OH - ( aq ) . HCO 3 - ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) ↔ Write a reaction that shows that HCO 3 - is a Brønsted base when reacted with H 3 O + ( aq ). HCO 3 - ( aq ) + H 3 O + ( aq ) ↔ H 2 CO 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O H 2 O + CO 3 2- ( aq )
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15.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange protons 9 Your Turn How many of the following are amphoteric? HC 2 H 3 O 2 , H 2 PO 4 2- , HSO 4 - A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. None of these
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10 Acid/Base Strengths in Aqueous Solution Hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) is the strongest acid in an aqueous solution: stronger acids react completely with water to give H 3 O + Hydroxide ion (OH - ) is the strongest possible base in an aqueous solution: stronger bases react completely with water to give OH -
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