ISSA-Bodybuilding-Main-Course-Textbook.pdf - First Edition Bodybuilding The Complete Guide to Unlocking Muscle Hypertrophy 1015 Mark Avenue \u2022

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Unformatted text preview: First Edition Bodybuilding The Complete Guide to Unlocking Muscle Hypertrophy 1015 Mark Avenue • Carpinteria, CA 93013 1.800.892.4772 • 1.805.745.8111 (international) ISSAonline.com Course Textbook for BODYBUILDING SPECIALIST International Sports Sciences Association 800.892.4772 • ISSAonline.com Bodybuilding First Edition The Complete Guide to Unlocking Muscle Hypertrophy Josh Bryant, MS Course Textbook for BODYBUILDING SPECIALIST Where Life Is Your Competitive Stage™ Bodybuilding The Complete Guide to Unlocking Muscle Hypertrophy Josh Bryant, MS Bodybuilding: The Complete Guide to Unlocking Muscle Hypertrophy (Edition 1) Official course text for: International Sports Sciences Association’s Bodybuilding Specialist Program 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 Copyright © 2019 International Sports Sciences Association. Published by the International Sports Sciences Association, Carpinteria, CA 93013. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, or in any information storage and retrieval system without the written permission of the publisher. Direct copyright, permissions, reproduction, and publishing inquiries to: International Sports Sciences Association, 1015 Mark Avenue, Carpinteria, CA 93013 1.800.892.4772 • 1.805.745.8111 (local) • 1.805.745.8119 (fax) Disclaimer of Warranty This text is informational only. The data and information contained herein are based upon information from various published and unpublished sources that represents training, health, and nutrition literature and practice summarized by the author and publisher. The publisher of this text makes no warranties, expressed or implied, regarding the currency, completeness, or scientific accuracy of this information, nor does it warrant the fitness of the information for any particular purpose. The information is not intended for use in connection with the sale of any product. Any claims or presentations regarding any specific products or brand names are strictly the responsibility of the product owners or manufacturers. This summary of information from unpublished sources, books, research journals, and articles is not intended to replace the advice or attention of health care professionals. It is not intended to direct their behavior or replace their independent professional judgment. If you have a problem or concern with your health, or before you embark on any health, fitness, or sports training programs, seek clearance and guidance from a qualified health care professional. About the Author | iii ABOUT THE AUTHOR Josh Bryant is a speed, strength, and conditioning coach. Josh trains some of the strongest and most muscular athletes in the world in person at Metroflex Gym in Arlington, Texas, and via the Internet. Along with his receiving certifications from the International Sports Sciences Association in fitness training, nutrition, and conditioning, Josh was recently awarded the prestigious title of Master of Fitness Science (MFS) by the ISSA. He also has a Master’s degree in Exercise Science. Josh has won many national and world titles in powerlifting and strongman and was the youngest person in powerlifting history, at 22, to bench press 600 pounds raw. Josh has squatted 909 pounds in the USPF, officially bench pressed 620 pounds raw, and officially deadlifted 800 pounds raw. International Sports Sciences Association CONTENTS Introduction, p.1 1 2 Hypertrophy and Adaptations to Strength Training, p.5 7 Stretching, p.135 It’s All about the Muscle, p.6 Flexibility Assessment, p.138 Muscle Structure and Function, p.7 Inflexibility and Injury Potential, p.140 Connective Tissue, p.11 Specificity and Flexibility, p.141 Nervous System: The Mind and Body Link, p.13 Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness (DOMS), p.143 Periodization of Stretching, p.143 Basic Kinesiology and Biomechanics, p.21 Types, p.144 Fundamental Movements of Major Body Segments, p.22 The Warm-up, p.147 Movement Planes and Axes, p.25 Stretching Routines, p.148 Musculoskeletal Movement, p.26 The Principle of Levers, p.29 Newton’s Laws of Motion, p.31 3 4 Back to Basics, p.33 8 Testing and Evaluation, p.153 Assessments for Bodybuilders, p.154 Benefits of Testing , p.154 Testing Procedures, p.155 Get Big: Train Big Lifts, p.35 Testing Problems and Concerns, p.156 Hormonal Response to Heavy Core Lifts , p.58 Testing for Limit Strength, p.158 Top Ten Exercises, p.61 Comparing Strength Across All Bodyweights, p.160 Exercise Selection, p.62 Body Composition Testing, p.160 Top Ten Exercises for Legs, p.74 Top Ten Exercises for Chest, p.82 5 Top Ten Exercises for Arms, p.89 Types of Periodization, p.174 Top Ten Exercises for the Back, p.96 Review of the Granddaddy Laws, p.178 Top Ten Exercises for Shoulders, p.103 Fitness Fatigue Model, p.179 Exercises for Abs, Calves, and Neck, p.111 Avoiding Overtraining and Overreaching, p.181 Bands and Chains Break into Bodybuilding, p.112 Bands for Powerlifting, p.113 Using Bands and Chains, p.114 Crucial Points about Bands and Chains, p.115 Bands and Chains Improve Strength Curve, p.116 Bands and Chains for More than Core Movements, p.119 Stretch Movements, p.120 Contracted Exercises, p.120 6 9 Periodization, p.173 Aerobic Training, p.123 Interval Conditioning, p.126 ABC Bodybuilding Periodization Model, p.176 Creating a Periodized Program, p.182 Sequence of Training, p.186 Foundational Training, p.187 Bulking/Hypertrophy Training, p.192 Competition Prep/Cutting, p.193 10 Bringing Up Symmetry and Attacking Weaknesses, p.196 12 Nutrition, p.240 Muscle Shaping, p.197 Essential Nutrients, p.241 Stressing Different Muscle Parts, p.197 Macronutrients, p.241 Isolation Exercises, p.198 Improving Symmetry and Lagging Body Parts, p.200 13 Supplements and Drugs, p.257 Increased Frequency, p.201 Which supplements do you need?, p.258 Working Origin and Insertion, p.203 Drugs in Bodybuilding, p.260 Set Your Priorities, p.203 Breaking Out of Your Comfort Zone, p.203 BOSU Ball and Stability Ball Training, p.204 11 Bodybuilding Methods and Traditions, p.205 Split System Training, p.206 Superset, p.207 Giant Sets, p.208 Rest-Pause Method, p.209 Drop Sets, p.210 14 Recovery, p.273 Individual Differences, p.274 Stressors, p.274 High-Frequency Fatigue (Electromechanical Fatigue), p.276 Low-Frequency Fatigue (Mechanico-Metabolic Fatigue), p.276 Long-Term Fatigue, p.277 Nutrition and Supplementation, p.279 EuroBlast Training, p.212 Deloads for Bodybuilding, p.279 Staggered Sets, p.212 Sleeping, p.287 Traditional Pyramiding, p.213 Further Expediting Recovery, p.289 Pre-Exhaustion Training, p.215 Post-Exhaustion Training, p.216 15 Injuries in Bodybuilding, p.297 German Volume Training, p.217 Exercise, p.298 20-Rep Breathing Squats, p.220 Injury Prevention, p.305 Forced Reps, p.221 Negatives (Eccentric Training), p.222 Partial Reps, p.224 DC Training, p.225 16 Bodybuilding Sports Psychology, p.309 Bodybuilding versus Traditional Sports, p.310 REFERENCES, p.319 Peak Contraction Training, p.227 Weider System/Principles, p.229 Heavy-Duty Training, p.230 Peripheral Heart Action Training, p.231 Circuit Training, p.232 Time under Tension (TUT) Training, p.232 Tempo Training, p.234 Powerbuilding, p.235 Compensatory Acceleration Training (CAT), p.236 Muscle Priority Training, p.237 Cheating Exercises, p.237 Periodization Training, p.238 GLOSSARY, p.329 This page is intentionally blank. TOPICS COVERED IN THIS UNIT What Can You Expect to Learn History of Bodybuilding INTRODUCTION 2| Welcome to the ISSA’s course on the exciting, and often misunderstood, world of bodybuilding. When the layperson thinks about the sport of bodybuilding, images of big, dumb guys grunting and throwing weight around are often conjured up. This could not be further from the truth! As you read and work your way through this course, you will see that the serious bodybuilder (or his or her coach) is part athlete, part scientist, and part artist. If you are new to bodybuilding, this may sound crazy to you, but I am confident that upon completing this course, you will understand and agree with my sentiments on the sport of bodybuilding. WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT TO LEARN Modern bodybuilding is unlike other sports. Nearly every sport requires the athlete to perform some sort of skilled movement or display great speed, strength, or stamina. However, bodybuilding is unique because developing an aesthetically pleasing appearance by selectively maximizing your muscles’ mass is the sport’s ultimate objective. In the ensuing pages, we will cover everything from which exercises to do, the science behind what makes these so effective, and when to do them to the different types of periodization and how to decide which is right for your client. This course is designed to help you understand everything that building a champion physique entails. Not only will this help you become more proficient in the art and science of bodybuilding, but also the information contained in these pages will help you become a better trainer for all types of people with varying goals. To ensure your complete understanding of the material contained in this course, please read through slowly and move to the next unit only after you feel you have mastered the information. To some extent, each unit builds off the previous unit, so read and study them in sequence. Bodybuilding Upon completion of the ISSA’s bodybuilding course, you will have all the knowledge necessary to prepare an athlete for a high-level bodybuilding or physique competition. But many who take this course will never go down that path; for these trainers, the course will provide essential information that can help them train the “everyday” clients who want to look and feel their best. All trainers can benefit from the information in this bodybuilding course, not only individuals looking to enter the sport of bodybuilding! We will also review one of the most important aspects of bodybuilding: nutrition. As the old adage goes, “You can’t outwork a bad diet!” Along with nutrition, we will discuss supplementation strategies and even talk a bit about the unfortunate reality of anabolic steroid use in bodybuilding (which the ISSA and I highly discourage). HISTORY OF BODYBUILDING Although the first major bodybuilding show did not occur until 1901, it would be untrue to say that bodybuilding began then. Throughout history, men of strength have been the principal actors in fables, songs, poems, and art. The ancient Greeks commemorated Hercules by casting him in stone. His statue remained the ideal by which those who followed him in time were judged—both from the standpoint of strength as well as physique. Introduction | 3 The beginning of what we today call bodybuilding can be traced back to Eugene Sandow in the late 19th century. Eugene Sandow, “the father of modern bodybuilding,” was a Prussian-born strongman/strength athlete who used classic Greek statues to develop what he called a perfect physique. Sandow organized the first major bodybuilding competition in London in 1901. The bodybuilding show was so successful that hordes of people were turned away at the door. During the early 1900s, physique exhibitions were popular additions to Olympic weightlifting contests. In fact, at least two or three physical culture magazines sponsored photo contests, the most memorable one being that in which the legendary Charles Atlas claimed the title of the world’s most perfectly developed male. It is hard to pinpoint the precise time that bodybuilding began to be regarded as a sport, but it certainly appears to relate to the fact that the early bodybuilders needed to be not only successful athletes but also well-built. All types of arguments, pro and con, have been advanced regarding the place of bodybuilding in the world of sport. The year 1939 heralded the first Mr. America contest, held by the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU). But this competition did not strictly focus on how the athlete looked. In the early Mr. America contest, the competitors were judged not only by their appearance but also on their performance of feats of strength and athletic ability. This athletic ability portion of a bodybuilding competition continued into the 1960s before being dropped. Bodybuilding continued to grow throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Great champions emerged from this era, including Steve Reeves, Reg Park, and Bill Pearl. During this period, bodybuilding gyms became much more common throughout the country. More and more people began to participate in weightlifting for both health purposes and aesthetics. In the 1960s, bodybuilders began appearing regularly on television and in movies. This only helped solidify bodybuilding as a sport here for the long haul. What started as a small number of people competing against each other had grown into a sport garnering worldwide interest. The late 1960s through the 1970s produced the most famous bodybuilder of all time, Arnold Schwarzenegger. Arnold won his first Mr. Olympia contest in 1970 at 23 years of age; this still stands as a record for the youngest Mr. Olympia. He went on to win the title of Mr. Olympia seven times (1970–1975 and again in 1980). A catalyst for bodybuilding’s explosion during this time was a documentary titled Pumping Iron, which followed Arnold Schwarzenegger in his run up to his 1975 Mr. Olympia title. The film followed Schwarzenegger, Franco Colombo, and Lou Ferrigno, among others, in the months leading up to the Mr. Olympia contest. It was a commercial success and led to Arnold Schwarzenegger and bodybuilding becoming part of mainstream America. The 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s saw the rise of the “mass monsters.” The bodybuilders of this time grew bigger and bigger. Competitors such as Lee Haney, Dorian Yates, Markus Ruhl, and Ronnie Coleman brought a size to the bodybuilding stage that had never been seen. Ronnie Coleman reigned supreme during this era, winning Mr. Olympia eight times (1998–2005), a number that ties him with Lee Haney for most Olympia wins in a career. Although there have been some outstanding bodybuilders recently, the man currently to beat is Phil Heath. Heath has won the Mr. Olympia title International Sports Sciences Association 4| the last six years running (2011–2016) and shows no signs of being beat anytime soon. It is truly an exciting time to be involved in this sport! Whether you are planning to coach bodybuilders, are competing yourself, or just want to expand your knowledge to better service your clients, this course will help you. Upon completion of this course, you will be able to prescribe exercises (and give scientific evidence of their validity), successfully periodize a training cycle, offer sound Bodybuilding nutritional guidance, and understand (and implement) an array of both common and uncommon modalities. Once you have completed this course, you will have the requisite knowledge to take somebody from beginner to stage ready! Make sure to read each unit thoroughly and to complete them in order. Give yourself time to let the ideas sink in before you move on. Now get ready to enter the wonderful and exciting world of bodybuilding! TOPICS COVERED IN THIS UNIT It’s All about the Muscle Muscle Structure and Function Microstructure Reciprocal Innervation Sliding Filament Theory Muscle Fiber Pennation Arrangement Muscle Fiber Types Connective Tissue Tendons Ligaments Cartilage Nervous System: The Mind and Body Link Theory of Neuromuscular Activity Neural Adaptations Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Satellite Cells A Few Last Words UNIT 1 HYPERTROPHY AND ADAPTATIONS TO STRENGTH TRAINING 6 | Unit 1 Bodybuilders are known for having one thing in mind: How do I get big? Muscle: A group of motor units physically separated by a membrane from other groups of motor units. Smooth Muscle: Governed by the autonomic nervous system and includes the muscles that line the digestive tract and protect the blood vessels. Cardiac Muscle: Which includes the heart, as smooth muscle is modulated by the autonomic nervous system. Skeletal Muscle: Blends into tendinous insertions that attach to bones, pulling on them, which generates desired movement. Motor Unit: Consists of a single neuron and all the muscle fibers innervated by it. Myofibrils: Small bundles of myofilaments. As you will discover in the pages of this book and course, you’ve got to eat well and train hard and smart. But there’s more—much more than what you can see in the mirror. Let’s take a look at what happens to your body behind the scenes. By taking time to understand the structure of muscle and how it responds to training, you will be better able to develop scientifically driven programs, thus putting you and your client in the best position to succeed. IT’S ALL ABOUT THE MUSCLE The human body has three types of muscle: Smooth muscle, which is governed by the autonomic nervous system, includes the muscles that line the digestive tract and protect the blood vessels. Cardiac muscle, which includes the heart, like smooth muscle, is modulated by the autonomic nervous system. The functioning of smooth and cardiac muscle is largely involuntary. Skeletal muscle, the type bodybuilders are most concerned with building, blends into tendinous insertions that attach to bones, pulling on them, thereby generating desired movement. When the body has to move, it responds by activating a slew of muscles. The forces generated by the body internally must overcome the forces imposed on the body externally. During strength training, the body must overcome gravitational and inertial forces, which are magnified when a barbell is in people’s hands, on their backs, or overhead. Cumulatively, strength training will make skeletal muscles stronger, make cardiac muscle more efficient, and enhance the functioning of smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle tissue Smooth muscle tissue Cardiac muscle tissue Figure 1.1 Muscle types Bodybuilding Hypertrophy and Adaptations to Strength Training | 7 Adapted from Fitness: The Complete Guide, International Sports Sciences Association. 2017. MUSCLE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION MICROSTRUCTURE Muscles are composed largely of proteins, which are hierarchically organized from large groups to small fibers. A muscle is a group of motor units physically separated by a membrane from other groups of motor units. A muscle is connected to bones through tendons. (Refer to Figure 1.3 for a diagram of muscle composition.) A motor unit consists of a single neuron and all the muscle fibers innervated by it. The ratio of nerves to fibers determines the fine motor control available to that muscle. For example, the hand has fewer fibers per motor unit than do the muscles of the calf. Figure 1.2 Motor unit The muscle fiber is composed of myofibrils, which are Epimysium Tendon Perimysium Bon e Fascicle Muscle Fiber* Myofibril Thin (actin) filament Troponin Tropomyosin Sarcomere Z-line Myosin head I H zone A Actin I Thick (myosin) filament Myosin/actin cross bridge Figure 1.3 Organization of human skeletal muscle International Sports Sciences Association 8 | Unit 1 Myosin: Short, thick filaments that make up part of myofilaments. small bundles of myofilaments. Myofilaments are the elements of the muscle that actually shorten upon contraction. Myofilaments are mainly composed of two types of protein: myosin (short, thick filaments) and actin (long, thin filaments). Two other important proteins composing myofibrils are troponin and tropomyosin. Actin: Long, thin filaments that make up part of myofilaments. RECIPROCAL INNERVATION Reciprocal Innervation: When a prime mover muscle (or group of muscles) contracts, the opposing muscle (or group) relaxes. When a prime mover muscle (or group of muscles) contracts, the opposing muscle (or group) relaxes. When locking out a bench press, the triceps are the prime mover; the biceps relax as you push the weight to completion. This...
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