Human Bipedalism, Tools and Brains

Human Bipedalism, Tools and Brains - Human: Bipedalism,...

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Lecture Topic: Australopithecines and Paranthropines Clearly hominin – bipedalism and increase in brain size, shorter, placement of foramen magnum and adducted toe, Laetoli footprints Paranthropines (robust australopithecines) had broader and thicker bones, sagittal crests (muscles for heavy chewing), megadont teeth Review: Who were the Early Hominins? First members of Genus: Homo Characteristics: Larger brain, taller, less sexual dimorphism, tool use, less prognathic, smaller teeth, more efficient stride A new genus should include a grade shift 1950s hunt for “missing link” Lewis and Mary Leaky, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Extensive collection of Oldowan tools (2.5 mya) crude rocks What is considered part of the genus homo? same bed as Zinjanthropus 10-12 years old smaller cheek teeth, twice brain size of Australopithecus (530 cc) Assigned to Homo Habilis, the handy man, simple tools found nearby, though not everyone was convinced What was fossil OH 7 - Johnny's Child (1964)? Richard Leakey (1972) found another KNM-ER1470, East Turkana, Kenya, definitely larger cranial capacity than Australopithecines (775 cc), but large australopithecine-like face Was the brain big enough to be homo or still Australopithecus? Both fossils called homo Habilis the first members of our genus homo and first stone tool-makers The two skulls were very different from each other, were they sexually dimorphic or two different species? Lieberman, Pilbeam, compared the skulls of gorillas to homo Habilis,
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Human Bipedalism, Tools and Brains - Human: Bipedalism,...

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