First Half - Themes for the class- War,...

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Themes for the class- War, strategy(annihilation, exhaustion, attrition), Karl von Clausewitz, Sun Tzu History is a dialogue with the past, is constantly changing In 1960's, historians began to look at social history also Study of more than just leaders, new documents used Last 10 years has added cultural history, including pop culture- not straight up military Added sociology, evolution of military institutions New military history focused on common people- individual soldiers in wars Author(Keegan) asks about rations, conditions, private matters of solders War ended up disappearing from military history because of the emphasis on sociology etc. Battle history reemerges but the place of battles is not the same- battle is placed on much more political and cultural background and much larger Discusses strategy, war goals, views of soldiers and generals in addition to maneuvers War- organized violence; about killing and the threat to kill; Karl von Clausewitz will be used as a model Karl von Clausewitz- Prussian general, at turn of century, book in 1830's called On War , highly regarded after Franco-Prussian war; military officer; around time of enlightenment; transformation of war; was a professional Battle is unique, you need to be there to understand; actual combat distorts all plans; situations arise that are not planned for Prussian army was a modern army Ancien Regime- France Republic based on people so when Prussia felt they were attacked(French Revolution attacked the aristocracy) so they drafted people; France had a lot of people willing to die for the cause; France had a lot of expendable people, Prussia did not On War and elsewhere- important von Clausewitz quotes “War is the continuation of politics by other means.”- war was designed for political means, soldiers carried them out- War is political instrument- Political ends, military means “War is essentially a contest of wills, of moral strength, as much it is of physical strength:- meant defeating enemy; break enemy's will, don't simply kill them all “There are three main elements involved in war: the government, which sets objectives of war; armed forces, which fight to achieve those objectives; and the people.” People are who can get mobilized and support wars with sheer manpower Kinds of war according to von Clausewitz Total war- total victory, impose one's will on the enemy Limited war- goals limited, clear cut, fought over territory or something of value, European Causes of war- good reasons vs. real reasons Good reasons- will mobilize support, propaganda programs, might be actual reason that influenced them Real reasons- true reason for going to war, not always what public wants to hear Three major strategies of war Annihilation- often incorporated with total victory, direct attack upon enemy forces with goal of overthrowing leaders; breaking will; defeat Exhaustion- indirect attack upon
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course HISTORY 205 taught by Professor - during the Fall '07 term at Rutgers.

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First Half - Themes for the class- War,...

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