Unformatted text preview: 1 2 PREFACE
One the many challenges facing the countries in the Asia-Pacific today is preparing their societies and governments for globalization and the information and
communication revolution. Policy-makers, business executives, NGO activists, academics, and ordinary citizens are increasingly concerned with the need to make
their societies competitive in the emergent information economy.
The e-ASEAN Task Force and the UNDP Asia Pacific Development Information
Programme (UNDP-APDIP) share the belief that with enabling information and communication technologies (ICTs), countries can face the challenge of the information
age. With ICTs they can leap forth to higher levels of social, economic and political
development. We hope that in making this leap, policy and decision-makers, planners, researchers, development practitioners, opinion-makers, and others will find
this series of e-primers on the information economy, society, and polity useful.
The e-primers aim to provide readers with a clear understanding of the various
terminologies, definitions, trends, and issues associated with the information age.
The primers are written in simple, easy-to-understand language. They provide examples, case studies, lessons learned, and best practices that will help planners
and decision makers in addressing pertinent issues and crafting policies and strategies appropriate for the information economy.
The present series of e-primers includes the following titles:
● The Information Age
● Nets, Webs and the Information Infrastructure
● e-Commerce and e-Business
● Legal and Regulatory Issues for the Information Economy
● ICT and Education
● Genes, Technology and Policy: An Introduction to Biotechnology
These e-primers are also available online at www.eprimers.org. and
The primers are brought to you by UNDP- APDIP, which seeks to create an ICT
enabling environment through advocacy and policy reform in the Asia-Pacific region, and the e-ASEAN Task Force, an ICT for development initiative of the 10member Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We welcome your views on new
topics and issues on which the e-primers may be useful.
Finally, we thank all who have been involved with this series of e-primers-writers, researchers, peer reviewers and the production team. Roberto R. Romulo
e-ASEAN Task Force
Manila. Philippines Shahid Akhtar
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
www.apdip.net 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
What is e-commerce?
Is the Internet economy synonymous with e-commerce and e-business?
What are the different types of e-commerce?
What forces are fueling e-commerce?
What are the components of a typicalsuccessful
e-commerce transaction loop?
How is the Internet relevant to e-commerce?
How important is an intranet for a business engaging in e-commerce?
Aside from reducing the cost of doing business
what are the advantages of e-commerce for businesses?
How is e-commerce helpful to the consumer?
How are business relationships transformed through e-commerce?
How does e-commerce link customers, workers,
suppliers, distributors and competitors?
What are the relevant components of an e-business model? 5
20 II. E-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS
What are the existing practices in developing countries
with respect to buying and paying online?
What is an electronic payment systems? Why is it important?
What is e-banking?
What is e-tailing?
What is online publishing? What are its most common applications? 21 III. E-COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
How important is e-commerce to SMEs in developing countries?
How big is the SME e-business market?
Is e-commerce helpful to the women sector? How has it helped
in empowering women?
What is the role of government in the development of
e-commerce in developing countries? 27 FOR FURTHER READING 39 NOTES 43 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 46 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 47 21
33 4 List of Tables
Table 1: Internet Economy Conceptual Frame
Table 2: Projected B2B E-Commerce by Region, 2000-2004 ($billions)
Table 3: Forrester’s M-Commerce Sales Predictions, 2001-2005
List of Figures
Figure 1. Worldwide E-Commerce Revenue, 2000 & 2004 (as a % share
of each country/region)
Figure 2. Share of B2B and B2C E-Commerce in Total Global E-Commerce
(2000 and 2004)
Figure 3. Old Economy Relationships vs. New Economy Relationships
Figure 4. Top 10 E-Retailers, 2001
List of Boxes
Box 1. Benefits of B2B E-Commerce in Developing Markets
Box 2. SESAMi.NET.: Linking Asian Markets through B2B Hubs
Box 3. Brazil’s Submarino: Improving Customer Service through the Internet
Box 4. Leveling the Playing Field through E-Commerce: The Case of
Box 5. Lessons from the Dot Com Frenzy
Box 6. Dawson’s Antiques and Sotheby’s: A Case of Creative Positioning
of an E-Business Strategy
Box 7. Payment Methods and Security Concerns: The Case of China
Box 8. E-Tailing: Pioneering Trends in E-Commerce
Box 9. ICT-4-BUS: Helping SMEs Conquer the E-Business Challenge
Box 10. IFAT: Empowering the Agricultural Sector through B2C
Box 11. Offshore Data Processing Centers: E-Commerce at Work
in the Service Sector
Box 12. E-Mail and the Internet in Developing Countries
Box 13. Women and Global Web-Based Marketing: The Case
of the Guyanan Weavers’ Cooperative
Box 14. Women Empowerment in Bangladesh: The Case
of the Grameen Village Phone Network
Box 15. Data Protection and Transaction Security 8
38 5 INTRODUCTION
In the emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The integration of information and communications technology
(ICT) in business has revolutionized relationships within organizations and those between and among organizations and individuals. Specifically, the use of ICT in business has enhanced productivity, encouraged greater customer participation, and enabled mass customization, besides reducing costs.
With developments in the Internet and Web-based technologies, distinctions between traditional markets and the global electronic marketplace-such as business
capital size, among others-are gradually being narrowed down. The name of the
game is strategic positioning, the ability of a company to determine emerging opportunities and utilize the necessary human capital skills (such as intellectual resources) to make the most of these opportunities through an e-business strategy
that is simple, workable and practicable within the context of a global information
milieu and new economic environment. With its effect of leveling the playing field,
e-commerce coupled with the appropriate strategy and policy approach enables
small and medium scale enterprises to compete with large and capital-rich businesses.
On another plane, developing countries are given increased access to the global
marketplace, where they compete with and complement the more developed economies. Most, if not all, developing countries are already participating in e-commerce,
either as sellers or buyers. However, to facilitate e-commerce growth in these countries, the relatively underdeveloped information infrastructure must be improved.
Among the areas for policy intervention are:
● ● ● High Internet access costs, including connection service fees, communication
fees, and hosting charges for websites with sufficient bandwidth;
Limited availability of credit cards and a nationwide credit card system;
Underdeveloped transportation infrastructure resulting in slow and uncertain
delivery of goods and services;
Network security problems and insufficient security safeguards;
Lack of skilled human resources and key technologies (i.e., inadequate professional IT workforce);
Content restriction on national security and other public policy grounds, which
greatly affect business in the field of information services, such as the media
and entertainment sectors;
Cross-border issues, such as the recognition of transactions under laws of other
ASEAN member-countries, certification services, improvement of delivery methods and customs facilitation; and
The relatively low cost of labor, which implies that a shift to a comparatively
capital intensive solution (including investments on the improvement of the physical and network infrastructure) is not apparent. 6 It is recognized that in the Information Age, Internet commerce is a powerful tool in
the economic growth of developing countries. While there are indications of ecommerce patronage among large firms in developing countries, there seems to
be little and negligible use of the Internet for commerce among small and medium
sized firms. E-commerce promises better business for SMEs and sustainable economic development for developing countries. However, this is premised on strong
political will and good governance, as well as on a responsible and supportive
private sector within an effective policy framework. This primer seeks to provide policy
guidelines toward this end. I. CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
What is e-commerce?
Electronic commerce or e-commerce refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and services.1 It also pertains to “any form of business transaction in
which the parties interact electronically rather than by physical exchanges or direct
E-commerce is usually associated with buying and selling over the Internet, or conducting any transaction involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods or
services through a computer-mediated network.3 Though popular, this definition is
not comprehensive enough to capture recent developments in this new and revolutionary business phenomenon. A more complete definition is: E-commerce is the
use of electronic communications and digital information processing technology in
business transactions to create, transform, and redefine relationships for value creation between or among organizations, and between organizations and individuals.4
International Data Corp (IDC) estimates the value of global e-commerce in 2000 at
US$350.38 billion. This is projected to climb to as high as US$3.14 trillion by 2004.
IDC also predicts an increase in Asia’s percentage share in worldwide e-commerce
revenue from 5% in 2000 to 10% in 2004 (See Figure 1). Figure 1. Worldwide E-Commerce Revenue, 2000 &2004
(as a % share of each country/region) 7 Asia-Pacific e-commerce revenues are projected to increase from $76.8 billion at
year-end of 2001 to $338.5 billion by the end of 2004.
Is e-commerce the same as e-business?
While some use e-commerce and e-business interchangeably, they are distinct concepts. In e-commerce, information and communications technology (ICT) is used in
inter-business or inter-organizational transactions (transactions between and among
firms/organizations) and in business-to-consumer transactions (transactions between
firms/organizations and individuals).
In e-business, on the other hand, ICT is used to enhance one’s business. It includes any process that a business organization (either a for-profit, governmental
or non-profit entity) conducts over a computer-mediated network. A more comprehensive definition of e-business is: “The transformation of an organization’s processes to
deliver additional customer value through the application of technologies, philosophies and computing paradigm of the new economy.”
Three primary processes are enhanced in e-business:5
1. Production processes, which include procurement, ordering and replenishment of stocks; processing of payments; electronic links with suppliers; and
production control processes, among others;
2. Customer-focused processes, which include promotional and marketing efforts, selling over the Internet, processing of customers’ purchase orders and
payments, and customer support, among others; and
3. Internal management processes, which include employee services, training, internal information-sharing, video-conferencing, and recruiting. Electronic
applications enhance information flow between production and sales forces
to improve sales force productivity. Workgroup communications and electronic publishing of internal business information are likewise made more
Is the Internet economy synonymous with e-commerce and e-business?
The Internet economy is a broader concept than e-commerce and e-business. It
includes e-commerce and e-business.
The Internet economy pertains to all economic activities using electronic networks
as a medium for commerce or those activities involved in both building the networks linked to the Internet and the purchase of application services7 such as the
provision of enabling hardware and software and network equipment for Web-based/
online retail and shopping malls (or “e-malls”). It is made up of three major segments:
physical (ICT) infrastructure, business infrastructure, and commerce.8 8 The CREC (Center for Research and Electronic Commerce) at the University of Texas
has developed a conceptual framework for how the Internet economy works. The
framework shows four layers of the Internet economy-the three mentioned above and
a fourth called intermediaries (see Table 1). Table 1. Internet Economy Conceptual Frame
Layer Layer 1 - Internet
Internet and for the
World Wide Web Layer 2 Internet
services Layer 3 Internet
that link ecommerce
in which ecommerce
can occur Layer 4 - Internet
sell products or
to consumers or
businesses. Types of
PC and Server
Applications Market Makers
Companies Examples Adobe
Qwest Based on Center for Research in Electronic Commerce, University of Texas, “Measuring the Internet Economy”, June
6, 2000; available from www.Internetindicators.com. 9 What are the different types of e-commerce?
The major different types of e-commerce are: business-to-business (B2B); businessto-consumer (B2C); business-to-government (B2G); consumer-to-consumer (C2C);
and mobile commerce (m-commerce).
What is B2B e-commerce?
B2B e-commerce is simply defined as e-commerce between companies. This is the
type of e-commerce that deals with relationships between and among businesses.
About 80% of e-commerce is of this type, and most experts predict that B2B ecommerce will continue to grow faster than the B2C segment.
The B2B market has two primary components: e-frastructure and e-markets. Efrastructure is the architecture of B2B, primarily consisting of the following:9
● logistics - transportation, warehousing and distribution (e.g., Procter and Gamble);
application service providers - deployment, hosting and management of packaged software from a central facility (e.g., Oracle and Linkshare);
outsourcing of functions in the process of e-commerce, such as Web-hosting,
security and customer care solutions (e.g., outsourcing providers such as
eShare, NetSales, iXL Enterprises and Universal Access);
auction solutions software for the operation and maintenance of real-time auctions in the Internet (e.g., Moai Technologies and OpenSite Technologies);
content management software for the facilitation of Web site content management and delivery (e.g., Interwoven and ProcureNet); and
Web-based commerce enablers (e.g., Commerce One, a browser-based, XMLenabled purchasing automation software). E-markets are simply defined as Web sites where buyers and sellers interact with
each other and conduct transactions.10
The more common B2B examples and best practice models are IBM, Hewlett
Packard (HP), Cisco and Dell. Cisco, for instance, receives over 90% of its product
orders over the Internet.
Most B2B applications are in the areas of supplier management (especially purchase order processing), inventory management (i.e., managing order-ship-bill
cycles), distribution management (especially in the transmission of shipping documents), channel management (i.e., information dissemination on changes in operational conditions), and payment management (e.g., electronic payment systems or EPS).11
eMarketer projects an increase in the share of B2B e-commerce in total global ecommerce from 79.2% in 2000 to 87% in 2004 and a consequent decrease in the
share of B2C e-commerce from 20.8% in 2000 to only 13% in 2004 (Figure 2). 10 Year 2000 Year 2004 Figure 2. Share of B2B and B2C E-Commerce in Total Global E-Commerce
(2000 and 2004) Likewise B2B growth is way ahead of B2C growth in the Asia-Pacific region. According to a 2001 eMarketer estimate, B2B revenues in the region are expected to exceed
$300 billion by 2004.
Table 2 shows the projected size of B2B e-commerce by region for the years 20002004. Table 2. Projected B2B E-Commerce by Region, 2000-2004 ($billions)
2000 North America 2001 2002 2003 2004 As a % of
2004 159.2 316.8 563.9 964.3 1,600.8 57.7 Asia/Pacific Rim 36.2 68.6 121.2 199.3 300.6 10.8 Europe 26.2 52.4 132.7 334.1 797.3 28.7 2.9 7.9 17.4 33.6 58.4 2.1 Latin America
TOTAL 1.7 3.2 5.9 10.6 17.7 0.6 226.2 448.9 841.1 1,541.9 2,774.8 100.0 Box 1. Benefits of B2B E-Commerce in Developing Markets
The impact of B2B markets on the economy of developing countries is evident in the following:
Transaction costs. There are three cost areas that are significantly reduced through the
conduct of B2B e-commerce. First is the reduction of search costs, as buyers need not go
through multiple intermediaries to search for information about suppliers, products and
prices as in a traditional supply chain. In terms of effort, time and money spent, the Internet
is a more efficient information channel than its traditional counterpart. In B2B markets,
buyers and sellers are gathered together into a single online trading community, reducing 11 search costs even further. Second is the reduction in the costs of processing transactions
(e.g. invoices, purchase orders and payment schemes), as B2B allows for the automation
of transaction processes and therefore, the quick implementation of the same compared to
other channels (such as the telephone and fax). Efficiency in trading processes and transactions is also enhanced through the B2B e-market’s ability to process sales through online
auctions. Third, online processing improves inventory management and logistics.
Disintermediation. Through B2B e-markets, suppliers are able to interact and transact
directly with buyers, thereby eliminating intermediaries and distributors. However, new
forms of intermediaries are emerging. For instance, e-markets themselves can be considered as intermediaries because they come between suppliers and customers in the
Transparency in pricing. Among the more evident benefits of e-markets is the increase in
price transparency. The gathering of a large number of buyers and sellers in a single e-market
reveals market price information and transaction processing to participants. The Internet
allows for the publication of information on a single purchase or transaction, making the
information readily accessible and available to all members of the e-market. Increased price
transparency has the effect of pulling down price differentials in the market. In this context,
buyers are provided much more time to compare prices and make better buying decisions.
Moreover, B2B e-markets expand borders for dynamic and negotiated pricing wherein multiple
buyers and sellers collectively participate in price-setting and two-way auctions. In such
environments, prices can be set through automatic matching of bids and offers. In the emarketplace, the requirements of both buyers and sellers are thus aggregated to reach
competitive prices, which are lower than those resulting from individual actions.
Economies of scale and network effects. The rapid growth of B2B e-markets creates
traditional supply-side cost-based economies of scale. Furthermore, the bringing together
of a significant number of buyers and sellers provides the demand-side economies of scale
or network effects. Each additional incremental participant in the e-market creates value for
all participants in the demand side. More participants form a critical mass, which is key in
attracting more users to an e-market. What is B2C e-commerce?
Business-to-consumer e-commerce, or commerce between companies and consumers, involves customers gathering information; purchasing physical goods (i.e., tangibles such as books or consumer products) or information goods (or goods of electronic material or digitized content, such as software, or e-books); and, for information goods, receiving products over an electronic network.12
It is the second largest and the earliest form of e-commerce. Its origins can be
traced to online retailing (or e-tailing).13 Thus, the more common B2C business
models are the online retailing companies such as Amazon.com, Drugstore.com,
Beyond.com, Barnes and Noble and ToysRus. Other B2C examples involving information goods are E-Trade and Travelocity.
The more common applications of this type of e-commerce are in the areas of
purchasing products and information, and personal finance management, which
pertains to the management of personal investments and finances with the use of
online banking tools (e.g., Quicken).14 12 eMarketer estimates that worldwide B2C e-commerce revenues will increase from
US$59.7 billion in 2000 to US$428.1 billion by 2004. Online retailing transactions
make up a significant share of this market. eMarketer also estimates that in the AsiaPacific region, B2C revenues, while registering a modest figure compared to B2B,
nonetheless went up to $8.2 billion by the end of 2001, with that figure doubling at the
end of 2002-at total worldwide B2C sales below 10%.
B2C e-commerce reduces transactions costs (particularly search costs) by increasing
consumer access to information and allowing consumers to find the most competitive
price for a product or service. B2C e-commerce also reduces market entry barriers since
the cost of putting up and maintaining a Web site is much cheaper than installing a
“brick-and-mortar” structure for a firm. In the case of information goods, B2C e-commerce is even more attractive because it saves firms from factoring in the additional cost
of a physical distribution network. Moreover, for countries with a growing and robust
Internet population, delivering information goods becomes increasingly feasible.
What is B2G e-commerce?
Business-to-government e-commerce or B2G is generally defined as commerce between companies and the public sector. It refers to the use of the Internet for public
procurement, licensing procedures, and other government-related operations. This kind
of e-commerce has two features: first, the public sector assumes a pilot/leading role in
establishing e-commerce; and second, it is assumed that the public sector has the
greatest need for making its procurement system more effective.15
Web-based purchasing policies increase the transparency of the procurement process (and reduces the risk of irregularities). To date, however, the size of the B2G ecommerce market as a component of total e-commerce is insignificant, as government e-procurement systems remain undeveloped.
What is C2C e-commerce?
Consumer-to-consumer e-commerce or C2C is simply commerce between private
individuals or consumers.
This type of e-commerce is characterized by the growth of electronic marketplaces
and online auctions, particularly in vertical industries where firms/businesses can
bid for what they want from among multiple suppliers.16 It perhaps has the greatest
potential for developing new markets.
This type of e-commerce comes in at least three forms:
● auctions facilitated at a portal, such as eBay, which allows online real-time bidding on items being sold in the Web;
peer-to-peer systems, such as the Napster model (a protocol for sharing files
between users used by chat forums similar to IRC) and other file exchange and
later money exchange models; and 13 ● classified ads at portal sites such as Excite Classifieds and eWanted (an interactive, online marketplace where buyers and sellers can negotiate and which
features “Buyer Leads & Want Ads”). Consumer-to-business (C2B) transactions involve reverse auctions, which empower
the consumer to drive transactions. A concrete example of this when competing
airlines gives a traveler best travel and ticket offers in response to the traveler’s
post that she wants to fly from New York to San Francisco.
There is little information on the relative size of global C2C e-commerce. However,
C2C figures of popular C2C sites such as eBay and Napster indicate that this market is quite large. These sites produce millions of dollars in sales every day.
What is m-commerce?
M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services
through wireless technology-i.e., handheld devices such as cellular telephones and
personal digital assistants (PDAs). Japan is seen as a global leader in m-commerce.
As content delivery over wireless devices becomes faster, more secure, and scalable, some believe that m-commerce will surpass wireline e-commerce as the
method of choice for digital commerce transactions. This may well be true for the
Asia-Pacific where there are more mobile phone users than there are Internet users.
Industries affected by m-commerce include:
● Financial services, including mobile banking (when customers use their
handheld devices to access their accounts and pay their bills), as well as brokerage services (in which stock quotes can be displayed and trading conducted
from the same handheld device);
Telecommunications, in which service changes, bill payment and account
reviews can all be conducted from the same handheld device;
Service/retail, as consumers are given the ability to place and pay for orders
Information services, which include the delivery of entertainment, financial
news, sports figures and traffic updates to a single mobile device.17 Forrester Research predicts US$3.4 billion sales closed using PDA and cell phones
by 2005 (See Table 3).
What forces are fueling e-commerce?
There are at least three major forces fuelling e-commerce: economic forces, marketing and customer interaction forces, and technology, particularly multimedia convergence.18 14 Table 3. Forrester’s M-Commerce Sales Predictions, 2001-2005
Device 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Sales closed on devices (in billions)
PDA 0.0 0.1 0.5 1.4 3.1 Cell phone 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 Sales influenced by devices (in billions)
PDA 1.0 5.6 14.4 20.7 24.0 Cell Phone 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 1.3 Economic forces. One of the most evident benefits of e-commerce is economic
efficiency resulting from the reduction in communications costs, low-cost technological infrastructure, speedier and more economic electronic transactions with suppliers, lower global information sharing and advertising costs, and cheaper customer service alternatives.
Economic integration is either external or internal. External integration refers to the
electronic networking of corporations, suppliers, customers/clients, and independent contractors into one community communicating in a virtual environment (with
the Internet as medium). Internal integration, on the other hand, is the networking
of the various departments within a corporation, and of business operations and
processes. This allows critical business information to be stored in a digital form
that can be retrieved instantly and transmitted electronically. Internal integration is
best exemplified by corporate intranets. Among the companies with efficient corporate intranets are Procter and Gamble, IBM, Nestle and Intel.
Box 2. SESAMi.NET.: Linking Asian Markets through B2B Hubs
SESAMi.NET is Asia’s largest B2B e-hub, a virtual exchange integrating and connecting
businesses (small, medium or large) to trading partners, e-marketplaces and internal enterprise systems for the purpose of sourcing out supplies, buying and selling goods and
services online in real time. The e-hub serves as the center for management of content and
the processing of business transactions with support services such as financial clearance
and information services.
It is strategically and dynamically linked to the Global Trading Web (GTW), the world’s largest
network of trading communities on the Internet. Because of this very important link, SESAMi
reaches an extensive network of regional, vertical and industry-specific interoperable B2B
e-markets across the globe. Market forces. Corporations are encouraged to use e-commerce in marketing and
promotion to capture international markets, both big and small. The Internet is likewise used as a medium for enhanced customer service and support. It is a lot
easier for companies to provide their target consumers with more detailed product
and service information using the Internet. 15 Box 3. Brazil’s Submarino19: Improving Customer Service through the Internet
Brazil’s Submarino is a classic example of successful use of the Internet for improved
customer service and support. From being a local Sao Paulo B2C e-commerce company
selling books, CDs, video cassettes, DVDs, toys, electronic and computer products in Brazil,
it expanded to become the largest company of its kind in Argentina, Mexico, Spain and
Portugal. Close to a third of the 1.4 million Internet users in Brazil have made purchases
through this site. To enhance customer service, Submarino has diversified into offering
logistical and technological infrastructure to other retailers, which includes experience and
expertise in credit analysis, tracking orders and product comparison systems. Technology forces. The development of ICT is a key factor in the growth of ecommerce. For instance, technological advances in digitizing content, compression
and the promotion of open systems technology have paved the way for the convergence of communication services into one single platform. This in turn has made
communication more efficient, faster, easier, and more economical as the need to
set up separate networks for telephone services, television broadcast, cable television, and Internet access is eliminated. From the standpoint of firms/businesses
and consumers, having only one information provider means lower communications
Moreover, the principle of universal access can be made more achievable with
convergence. At present the high costs of installing landlines in sparsely populated rural areas is a disincentive to telecommunications companies to install
telephones in these areas. Installing landlines in rural areas can become more
attractive to the private sector if revenues from these landlines are not limited to
local and long distance telephone charges, but also include cable TV and Internet
charges. This development will ensure affordable access to information even by
those in rural areas and will spare the government the trouble and cost of installing expensive landlines.21
What are the components of a typical successful e-commerce transaction
E-commerce does not refer merely to a firm putting up a Web site for the purpose of
selling goods to buyers over the Internet. For e-commerce to be a competitive alternative to traditional commercial transactions and for a firm to maximize the benefits
of e-commerce, a number of technical as well as enabling issues have to be considered. A typical e-commerce transaction loop involves the following major players and
The Seller should have the following components:
● A corporate Web site with e-commerce capabilities (e.g., a secure transaction
● A corporate intranet so that orders are processed in an efficient manner; and
● IT-literate employees to manage the information flows and maintain the e-commerce system. 16 Transaction partners include:
● Banking institutions that offer transaction clearing services (e.g., processing credit
card payments and electronic fund transfers);
● National and international freight companies to enable the movement of physical goods within, around and out of the country. For business-to-consumer
transactions, the system must offer a means for cost-efficient transport of small
packages (such that purchasing books over the Internet, for example, is not
prohibitively more expensive than buying from a local store); and
● Authentication authority that serves as a trusted third party to ensure the integrity and security of transactions.
Consumers (in a business-to-consumer transaction) who:
● Form a critical mass of the population with access to the Internet and disposable
income enabling widespread use of credit cards; and
● Possess a mindset for purchasing goods over the Internet rather than by physically inspecting items.
Firms/Businesses (in a business-to-business transaction) that together form a
critical mass of companies (especially within supply chains) with Internet access
and the capability to place and take orders over the Internet.
Government, to establish:
● A legal framework governing e-commerce transactions (including electronic documents, signatures, and the like); and
● Legal institutions that would enforce the legal framework (i.e., laws and regulations) and protect consumers and businesses from fraud, among others.
And finally, the Internet, the successful use of which depends on the following:
● A robust and reliable Internet infrastructure; and
● A pricing structure that doesn’t penalize consumers for spending time on and
buying goods over the Internet (e.g., a flat monthly charge for both ISP access
and local phone calls).
For e-commerce to grow, the above requisites and factors have to be in place. The
least developed factor is an impediment to the increased uptake of e-commerce as
a whole. For instance, a country with an excellent Internet infrastructure will not
have high e-commerce figures if banks do not offer support and fulfillment services
to e-commerce transactions. In countries that have significant e-commerce figures,
a positive feedback loop reinforces each of these factors.22
How is the Internet relevant to e-commerce?
The Internet allows people from all over the world to get connected inexpensively and
reliably. As a technical infrastructure, it is a global collection of networks, connected
to share information using a common set of protocols.23 Also, as a vast network of
people and information,24 the Internet is an enabler for e-commerce as it allows businesses to showcase and sell their products and services online and gives potential 17 customers, prospects, and business partners access to information about these
businesses and their products and services that would lead to purchase.
Before the Internet was utilized for commercial purposes, companies used private
networks-such as the EDI or Electronic Data Interchange-to transact business with
each other. That was the early form of e-commerce. However, installing and maintaining private networks was very expensive. With the Internet, e-commerce spread
rapidly because of the lower costs involved and because the Internet is based on
How important is an intranet for a business engaging in e-commerce?
An intranet aids in the management of internal corporate information that may be
interconnected with a company’s e-commerce transactions (or transactions conducted outside the intranet). Inasmuch as the intranet allows for the instantaneous
flow of internal information, vital information is simultaneously processed and
matched with data flowing from external e-commerce transactions, allowing for the
efficient and effective integration of the corporation’s organizational processes. In
this context, corporate functions, decisions and processes involving e-commerce
activities are more coherent and organized.
The proliferation of intranets has caused a shift from a hierarchical command-andcontrol organization to an information-based organization. This shift has implications for managerial responsibilities, communication and information flows, and
Aside from reducing the cost of doing business, what are the advantages of
e-commerce for businesses?
E-commerce serves as an “equalizer”. It enables start-up and small- and medium-sized enterprises to reach the global market. Box 4. Leveling the Playing Field through E-commerce:
The Case of Amazon.com
Amazon.com is a virtual bookstore. It does not have a single square foot of bricks and mortar
retail floor space. Nonetheless, Amazon.com is posting an annual sales rate of approximately $1.2 billion, equal to about 235 Barnes & Noble (B&N) superstores. Due to the
efficiencies of selling over the Web, Amazon has spent only $56 million on fixed assets,
while B&N has spent about $118 million for 235 superstores. (To be fair, Amazon has yet to
turn a profit, but this does not obviate the point that in many industries doing business
through e-commerce is cheaper than conducting business in a traditional brick-and-mortar
company.) However, this does not discount the point that without a good e-business strategy, ecommerce may in some cases discriminate against SMEs because it reveals propri- 18 etary pricing information. A sound e-business plan does not totally disregard old
economy values. The dot-com bust is proof of this. Box 5. Lessons from the Dot Com Frenzy
According to Webmergers.com statistics, about 862 dot-com companies have failed
since the height of the dot-com bust in January 2000. Majority of these were ecommerce and content companies. The shutdown of these companies was followed
by the folding up of Internet-content providers, infrastructure companies, Internet
service providers, and other providers of dial-up and broadband Internet-access
From the perspective of the investment banks, the dot-com frenzy can be likened to a
gamble where the big money players were the venture capitalists and those laying their
bets on the table were the small investors. The bust was primarily caused by the players’
unfamiliarity with the sector, coupled with failure to cope with the speed of the Internet
revolution and the amount of capital in circulation.27
Internet entrepreneurs set the prices of their goods and services at very low levels to gain
market share and attract venture capitalists to infuse funding. The crash began when
investors started demanding hard earnings for sky-high valuations. The Internet companies also spent too much on overhead before even gaining a market share.28 E-commerce makes “mass customization” possible. E-commerce applications
in this area include easy-to-use ordering systems that allow customers to choose
and order products according to their personal and unique specifications. For instance, a car manufacturing company with an e-commerce strategy allowing for
online orders can have new cars built within a few days (instead of the several weeks
it currently takes to build a new vehicle) based on customer’s specifications. This
can work more effectively if a company’s manufacturing process is advanced and
integrated into the ordering system.
E-commerce allows “network production.” This refers to the parceling out of the
production process to contractors who are geographically dispersed but who are
connected to each other via computer networks. The benefits of network production
include: reduction in costs, more strategic target marketing, and the facilitation of
selling add-on products, services, and new systems when they are needed. With
network production, a company can assign tasks within its non-core competencies
to factories all over the world that specialize in such tasks (e.g., the assembly of
How is e-commerce helpful to the consumer?
In C2B transactions, customers/consumers are given more influence over what and
how products are made and how services are delivered, thereby broadening consumer choices. E-commerce allows for a faster and more open process, with customers having greater control. 19 E-commerce makes information on products and the market as a whole readily available and accessible, and increases price transparency, which enable customers to
make more appropriate purchasing decisions.
How are business relationships transformed through e-commerce?
E-commerce transforms old economy relationships (vertical/linear relationships) to
new economy relationships characterized by end-to-end relationship management
solutions (integrated or extended relationships).
How does e-commerce link customers, workers, suppliers, distributors and
E-commerce facilitates organization networks, wherein small firms depend on “partner” firms for supplies and product distribution to address customer demands more
To manage the chain of networks linking customers, workers, suppliers, distributors, and even competitors, an integrated or extended supply chain management
solution is needed. Supply chain management (SCM) is defined as the supervision of materials, information, and finances as they move from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. It involves the coordination and
integration of these flows both within and among companies. The goal of any
effective supply chain management system is timely provision of goods or services to the next link in the chain (and ultimately, the reduction of inventory within
There are three main flows in SCM, namely:
● The product flow, which includes the movement of goods from a supplier to a
customer, as well as any customer returns or service needs;
The information flow, which involves the transmission of orders and the update of
the status of delivery; and
The finances flow, which consists of credit terms, payment schedules, and consignment and title ownership arrangements. Some SCM applications are based on open data models that support the sharing
of data both inside and outside the enterprise, called the extended enterprise,
and includes key suppliers, manufacturers, and end customers of a specific
company. Shared data resides in diverse database systems, or data warehouses,
at several different sites and companies. Sharing this data “upstream” (with a
company’s suppliers) and “downstream” (with a company’s clients) allows SCM
applications to improve the time-to-market of products and reduce costs. It also
allows all parties in the supply chain to better manage current resources and
plan for future needs.30 20 New Economy Relationship ▲ Retailer Consumer ▲ ▲ Producer ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Consumer ▲ Retailer ▲ ▲ Producer ▲ Producer ▲ Old Economy Relationship Consumer Figure 3. Old Economy Relationships vs. New Economy Relationships What are the relevant components of an e-business model?
An e-business model must have:31
1. A shared digital business infrastructure, including digital production and distribution technologies (broadband/wireless networks, content creation technologies and information management systems), which will allow business participants to create and utilize network economies of scale32 and scope33;
2. A sophisticated model for operations, including integrated value chains-both
supply chains34 and buy chains35;
3. An e-business management model, consisting of business teams and/or partnerships; and
4. Policy, regulatory and social systems-i.e., business policies consistent with
e-commerce laws, teleworking/virtual work, distance learning, incentive schemes,
Box 6. Dawson’s Antiques and Sotheby’s:
A Case of Creative Positioning of an E-Business Strategy
Dawson’s Antiques is a 23-year-old small antique business. With the emergence of online
auction sites, the owner, Linda Dawson, foresaw the need not only to accommodate the
Internet in their business strategy but also to take advantage of it in order to survive as a
business. This came with the recognition that many of her clients were exposed to a wide
range of antiques from competitors at online auction sites at prices lower than she was
Meanwhile, Sotheby’s, then a growing online auction site (and now one of the largest online
auction sites), realized the merit of increasing its auction inventory to attract a bigger
audience on the Internet. It revised its Internet strategy by opening its Web site, sothebys.com,
to smaller dealers and auction sites instead of competing directly with its competitors in the
online auction business. With this approach, Sotheby experienced an exponential growth in
its inventory, which attracted a bigger market.
Dawson’s enlistment in Sotheby’s was instrumental in expanding its client base. To make
things easier, Sotheby’s not only provided the Web site for its members (Dawson’s included) 21 but also arranged to handle all billing and collection. Under the new strategy, Sotheby’s
enlisted 4,660 members, which translated to an expansion of its auction inventory by five
times the previous average stock or about 5,000 lots per week. For Dawson, e-business
sales accounted for 25% of total sales in mid-2000 and 50% in January 2001. II. E-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS
Various applications of e-commerce are continually affecting trends and prospects for
business over the Internet, including e-banking, e-tailing and online publishing/online
A more developed and mature e-banking environment plays an important role in ecommerce by encouraging a shift from traditional modes of payment (i.e., cash,
checks or any form of paper-based legal tender) to electronic alternatives (such as epayment systems), thereby closing the e-commerce loop.
What are the existing practices in developing countries with respect to buying and paying online?
In most developing countries, the payment schemes available for online transactions
are the following:
A. Traditional Payment Methods
● Cash-on-delivery. Many online transactions only involve submitting purchase
orders online. Payment is by cash upon the delivery of the physical goods. ● Bank payments. After ordering goods online, payment is made by depositing
cash into the bank account of the company from which the goods were ordered.
Delivery is likewise done the conventional way. B. Electronic Payment Methods
● Innovations affecting consumers, include credit and debit cards, automated
teller machines (ATMs), stored value cards, and e-banking. ● Innovations enabling online commerce are e-cash, e-checks, smart cards,
and encrypted credit cards. These payment methods are not too popular in
developing countries. They are employed by a few large companies in specific
secured channels on a transaction basis. ● Innovations affecting companies pertain to payment mechanisms that banks
provide their clients, including inter-bank transfers through automated clearing
houses allowing payment by direct deposit. 22 What is an electronic payment system? Why is it important?
An electronic payment system (EPS) is a system of financial exchange between
buyers and sellers in the online environment that is facilitated by a digital financial
instrument (such as encrypted credit card numbers, electronic checks, or digital
cash) backed by a bank, an intermediary, or by legal tender.
EPS plays an important role in e-commerce because it closes the e-commerce
loop. In developing countries, the underdeveloped electronic payments system is a
serious impediment to the growth of e-commerce. In these countries, entrepreneurs are not able to accept credit card payments over the Internet due to legal and
business concerns. The primary issue is transaction security.
The absence or inadequacy of legal infrastructures governing the operation of epayments is also a concern. Hence, banks with e-banking operations employ service agreements between themselves and their clients.
The relatively undeveloped credit card industry in many developing countries is
also a barrier to e-commerce. Only a small segment of the population can buy
goods and services over the Internet due to the small credit card market base.
There is also the problem of the requirement of “explicit consent” (i.e., a signature)
by a card owner before a transaction is considered valid-a requirement that does
not exist in the U.S. and in other developed countries.
What is the confidence level of consumers in the use of an EPS?
Many developing countries are still cash-based economies. Cash is the preferred
mode of payment not only on account of security but also because of anonymity,
which is useful for tax evasion purposes or keeping secret what one’s money is
being spent on. For other countries, security concerns have a lot to do with a lack of
a legal framework for adjudicating fraud and the uncertainty of the legal limit on the
liability associated with a lost or stolen credit card.
In sum, among the relevant issues that need to be resolved with respect to EPS
are: consumer protection from fraud through efficiency in record-keeping; transaction privacy and safety, competitive payment services to ensure equal access to all
consumers, and the right to choice of institutions and payment methods. Legal
frameworks in developing countries should also begin to recognize electronic transactions and payment schemes.
What is e-banking?
E-banking includes familiar and relatively mature electronically-based products in
developing markets, such as telephone banking, credit cards, ATMs, and direct deposit. It also includes electronic bill payments and products mostly in the developing
stage, including stored-value cards (e.g., smart cards/smart money) and Internetbased stored value products. 23 Box 7. Payment Methods and Security Concerns: The Case of China
In China, while banks issue credit cards and while many use debit cards to draw directly
from their respective bank accounts, very few people use their credit cards for online
payment. Cash-on-delivery is still the most popular mode of e-commerce payment. Nonetheless, online payment is gaining popularity because of the emergence of Chinapay and Cyber
Beijing, which offer a city-wide online payment system. What is the status of e-banking in developing countries?
E-banking in developing countries is in the early stages of development. Most banking in developing countries is still done the conventional way. However, there is an
increasing growth of online banking, indicating a promising future for online banking in these countries. Below is a broad picture of e-banking in three ASEAN countries.
The Philippine Experience
In the Philippines, Citibank, Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI), Philippine National Bank, and other large banks pioneered e-banking in the early 1980s. Interbank
networks in the country like Megalink, Bancnet, and BPI Expressnet were among
the earliest and biggest starters of ATM (Automated Teller Machines) technology.
BPI launched its BPI Express Online in January 2000. The most common online
financial services include deposits, fund transfers, applications for new accounts,
Stop Payment on issued checks, housing and auto loans, credit cards, and remittances.
The Singapore Experience
In Singapore, more than 28% of Internet users visited e-banking sites in May 2001.36
Research by NetValue (an Internet measurement company) shows that while the
number of people engaging in online banking in Singapore has increased, the average time spent at sites decreased by approximately four minutes from March
2001 to May 2001. This decline can be attributed to the fact that more visitors
spend time completing transactions, which take less time than browsing different
sites. According to the survey, two out of three visitors make a transaction.
All major banks in Singapore have an Internet presence. They offer a wide range of
products directly to consumers through proprietary Internet sites. These banks have
shifted from an initial focus on retail-banking to SME and corporate banking products and services.
Among the products offered are:
● Fund transfer and payment systems;
Integrated B2B e-commerce product, involving product selection, purchase
order, invoice generation and payment;
Securities placement and underwriting and capital market activities; 24 ●
● Securities trading; and
Retail banking. The Malaysian Experience
E-banking in Malaysia emerged in 1981 with the introduction of ATMs. This was
followed by tele-banking in the early 1990s where telecommunications devices were
connected to an automated system through the use of Automated Voice Response
(AVR) technology. Then came PC banking or desktop banking using proprietary
software, which was more popular among corporate customers than retail customers.
On June 1, 2000, the Malaysian Bank formally allowed local commercial banks to
offer Internet banking services. On June 15, 2000, Maybank (www.maybank2U.com),
one of the largest banks in Malaysia, launched the country’s first Internet banking
services. The bank employs 128-bit encryption technology to secure its transactions. Other local banks in Malaysia offering e-banking services are Southern Bank,
Hong Leong Bank, HSBC Bank, Multi-Purpose Bank, Phileo Allied Bank and RHB
Bank. Banks that offer WAP or Mobile banking are OCBC Bank, Phileo Allied Bank
and United Overseas Bank.
The most common e-banking services include banking inquiry functions, bill payments, credit card payments, fund transfers, share investing, insurance, travel, electronic shopping, and other basic banking services.37
What market factors, obstacles, problems and issues are affecting the growth of ebanking in developing countries?
Human tellers and automated teller machines continue to be the banking channels of choice in developing countries. Only a small number of banks employ
Internet banking. Among the middle- and high-income people in Asia questioned
in a McKinsey survey, only 2.6% reported banking over the Internet in 2000. In
India, Indonesia, and Thailand, the figure was as low as 1%; in Singapore and
South Korea, it ranged from 5% to 6%. In general, Internet banking accounted for
less than 0.1% of these customers’ banking transactions, as it did in 1999. The
Internet is more commonly used for opening new accounts but the numbers are
negligible as less than 0.3% of respondents used it for that purpose, except in
China and the Philippines where the figures climbed to 0.7 and 1.0%, respectively.
This slow uptake cannot be attributed to limited access to the Internet since 42% of
respondents said they had access to computers and 7% said they had access to
the Internet. The chief obstacle in Asia and throughout emerging markets is security. This is the main reason for not opening online banking or investment accounts.
Apparently, there is also a preference for personal contact with banks.
Access to high-quality products is also a concern. Most Asian banks are in the early
stages of Internet banking services, and many of the services are very basic. 25 What are the trends and prospects for e-banking in these countries?
There is a potential for increased uptake of e-banking in Asia. Respondents of the
McKinsey survey gave the following indications:
1. Lead users: 38% of respondents indicated their intention to open an online account in the near future. These lead users undertake one-third more transactions
a month than do other users, and they tend to employ all banking channels more
2. Followers: An additional 20% showed an inclination to eventually open an
online account, if their primary institution were to offer it and if there would be
no additional bank charges.
3. Rejecters: 42% (compared to the aggregate figure of 58% for lead users and
followers) indicated no interest in or an aversion to Internet banking. It is important to note that these respondents also preferred consolidation and simplicity,
i.e., owning fewer banking products and dealing with fewer financial institutions.
Less than 13% of the lead users and followers indicated some interest in conducting complex activities over the Internet, such as trading securities or applying for
insurance, credit cards, and loans. About a third of lead users and followers showed
an inclination to undertake only the basic banking functions, like ascertaining account balances and transferring money between accounts, over the Internet. 38
What is e-tailing?39
E-tailing (or electronic retailing) is the selling of retail goods on the Internet. It is the
most common form of business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction. Box 8. E-Tailing: Pioneering Trends in ECommerce
The year 1997 is considered the first big year for e-tailing. This was when Dell Computer
recorded multimillion dollar orders taken at its Web site. Also, the success of Amazon.com
(which opened its virtual doors in 1996) encouraged Barnes & Noble to open an e-tail site.
Security concerns over taking purchase orders over the Internet gradually receded. In the
same year, Auto-by-Tel sold its millionth car over the Web, and CommerceNet/Nielsen Media
recorded that 10 million people had made purchases on the Web. What are the trends and prospects for e-tailing?
Jupiter projects that e-tailing will grow to $37 billion by 2002. Another estimate is that
the online market will grow 45% in 2001, reaching $65 billion. Profitability will vary
sharply between Web-based, catalog-based and store-based retailers. There was
also a marked reduction in customer acquisition costs for all online retailers from an
average of $38 in 1999 to $29 in 2000. 26 An e-retail study conducted by Retail Forward showed that eight of its top 10 eretailers40 were multi-channel-that is, they do not rely on online selling alone.
Figure 4 shows the top 10 e-tailers by revenues generated online for the year
2001. Figure 4. Top 10 E-Retailers, 200141 In addition, a study by the Boston Consulting Group and Shop.org revealed that the
multi-channel retail market in the U.S. expanded by 72% from 1999 to 2002, vis-àvis a compounded annual growth rate of 67.8% for the total online market for the
What is online publishing? What are its most common applications?
Online publishing is the process of using computer and specific types of software to
combine text and graphics to produce Web-based documents such as newsletters,
online magazines and databases, brochures and other promotional materials, books,
and the like, with the Internet as a medium for publication.
What are the benefits and advantages of online publishing to business?
Among the benefits of using online media are low-cost universal access, the independence of time and place, and ease of distribution. These are the reasons why
the Internet is regarded as an effective marketing outreach medium and is often
used to enhance information service.
What are the problems and issues in online publishing?
The problems in online publishing can be grouped into two categories: management challenges and public policy issues. 27 There are two major management issues:
● ● The profit question, which seeks to address how an online presence can be
turned into a profitable one and what kind of business model would result in the
most revenue; and
The measurement issue, which pertains to the effectiveness of a Web site
and the fairness of charges to advertisers. The most common public policy issues have to do with copyright protection and
censorship. Many publishers are prevented from publishing online because of inadequate copyright protection. An important question to be addressed is: How can
existing copyright protections in the print environment be mapped onto the online
environment? Most of the solutions are technological rather than legal. The more
common technological solutions include encryption for paid subscribers, and information usage meters on add-in circuit boards and sophisticated document headers
that monitor the frequency and manner by which text is viewed and used.
In online marketing, there is the problem of unsolicited commercial e-mail or “spam
mail.” Junk e-mail is not just annoying; it is also costly. Aside from displacing normal
and useful e-mail, the major reason why spam mail is a big issue in online marketing is that significant costs are shifted from the sender of such mail to the recipient.
Sending bulk junk e-mail is a lot cheaper compared to receiving the same. Junk email consumes bandwidth (which an ISP purchases), making Internet access clients slower and thereby increasing the cost of Internet use.42 III. E-COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
How important is e-commerce to SMEs in developing countries? How big is
the SME e-business market?
For SMEs in developing countries e-commerce poses the advantages of reduced
information search costs and transactions costs (i.e., improving efficiency of operations-reducing time for payment, credit processing, and the like). Surveys show
that information on the following is most valuable to SMEs: customers and markets, product design, process technology, and financing source and terms. The
Internet and other ICTs facilitate access to this information.43 In addition, the Internet
allows automatic packaging and distribution of information (including customized
information) to specific target groups.
However, there is doubt regarding whether there is enough information on the Web
that is relevant and valuable for the average SME in a developing country that
would make investment in Internet access feasible. Underlying this is the fact that
most SMEs in developing countries cater to local markets and therefore rely heavily on local content and information. For this reason, there is a need to substantially
increase the amount and quality of local content (including local language content)
on the Internet to make it useful especially to low-income entrepreneurs.44 28 Box. 9. ICT-4-BUS: Helping SMEs Conquer the E-Business Challenge45
The Information and Communication Technology Innovation Program for E-business and SME
Development, otherwise known as the ICT-4-BUS, is an initiative by the Multilateral Investment Fund and the Information Technology for Development Division of the Inter-American
Development Bank (IDB) to enhance the competitiveness, productivity and efficiency of
micro-entrepreneurs and SMEs in Latin America and the Carribean through the provision of
increased access to ICT solutions. This is in line with the regional and worldwide effort to
achieve a viable “information society.” Programs and projects under this initiative include the
dissemination of region-wide best practices, computer literacy and training programs, and
coordination efforts to facilitate critical access to credit and financing for the successful
implementation of e-business solutions. The initiative serves as a strategic tool and a vehicle
for maximizing the strong SME e-business market potential in Latin America manifested in the
$23.51 billion e-business revenues reached among Latin American SMEs.46 eMarketer estimates that SME e-business revenues will increase: from $6.53 billion
to $28.53 billion in Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East combined; $127.25
billion in 2003 to $502.69 billion by 2005 in the Asia-Pacific region; $23.51 billion in
2003 to $89.81 billion by 2005 in Latin America; from $340.41 billion in 2003 to
$971.47 billion by 2005 in Western Europe; and from $384.36 billion in 2003 to
$1.18 trillion by 2005 in Northern America.
How is e-commerce useful to developing country entrepreneurs?
There are at least five ways by which the Internet and e-commerce are useful for
developing country entrepreneurs:
1. It facilitates the access of artisans47 and SMEs to world markets.
2. It facilitates the promotion and development of tourism of developing countries
in a global scale.
3. It facilitates the marketing of agricultural and tropical products in the global market. Box 10. IFAT: Empowering the Agricultural Sector
through B2C E-Commerce
The International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT) is a collective effort to empower the
agricultural sector of developing countries. It is composed of 100 organizations (including 70
organizations in developing countries) in 42 countries. Members of the organization collectively market about $200-400 million annually in handicrafts and agricultural products from
lower income countries. In addition, IFAT provides assistance to developing country producers in terms of logistical support, quality control, packing and export. 4. It provides avenues for firms in poorer countries to enter into B2B and B2G supply
5. It assists service-providing enterprises in developing countries by allowing them to
operate more efficiently and directly provide specific services to customers globally. 29 Box 11. Offshore Data Processing Centers:
E-commerce at Work in the Service Sector
Offshore data processing centers, which provide data transcription and “back office”
functions to service enterprises such as insurance companies, airlines, credit card companies and banks, among others, are prevalent in developing countries and even in lowwage developed countries. In fact, customer support call centers of dot-coms and other
ICT/e-commerce companies are considered one of the fastest growing components of
offshore services in these countries.
India and the Philippines pride themselves in being the major locations of offshore data entry
and computer programming in Asia, with India having established a sophisticated software
development capability with highly skilled personnel to support it.48 Developing country SMEs in the services sector have expanded their market with
the increased ability to transact directly with overseas or international customers
and to advertise their services. This is especially true for small operators of tourismrelated services. Tourism boards lend assistance in compiling lists of service providers by category in their Web sites.
In addition, for SMEs in developing countries the Internet is a quick, easy, reliable
and inexpensive means for acquiring online technical support and software tools and
applications, lodging technical inquiries, requesting repairs, and ordering replacement parts or new tooling.49
The Internet is also instrumental in enabling SMEs in developing countries to join
discussion groups with their peers across the globe who are engaged in the same
business, and thereby share information, experiences and even solutions to specific
technical problems. This is valuable especially to entrepreneurs who are geographically isolated from peers in the same business.50
What is the extent of ICT usage among SMEs in developing countries?
Currently the Internet is most commonly used by SME firms in developing countries
for communication and research; the Internet is least used for e-commerce. E-mail is
considered an important means of communication. However, the extent of use is
limited by the SMEs’ recognition of the importance of face-to-face interaction with
their buyers and suppliers. The level of confidence of using e-mail for communication
with both suppliers and buyers increases only after an initial face-to-face interaction.
E-mail, therefore, becomes a means for maintaining a business relationship. It is
typically the first step in e-commerce, as it allows a firm to access information and
maintain communications with its suppliers and buyers. This can then lead to more
advanced e-commerce activities.
ICT usage patterns among SMEs in developing countries show a progression from
the use of the Internet for communication (primarily e-mail) to use of the Internet for
research and information search, to the development of Web sites with static information about a firm’s goods or services, and finally to use of the Internet for e-commerce. 30 Box 12. E-Mail and the Internet in Developing Countries
To date, e-mail is the predominant and most important use of the Internet in developing
countries. In Bangladesh, 82% of Internet use is attributed to e-mail, vis-à-vis 5% in the
United States. The Web accounts for about 70% of Internet use in the U.S.51 This is due to the
relatively high Internet access costs in most developing countries. However, the Internet is
considered an inexpensive, although imperfect, alternative to the telephone or facsimile
machine-i.e., it is inexpensive due to the higher speed of information transmission, and
imperfect because it does not provide two-way communication in real time unlike the telephone.52 Many firms use the Internet to communicate with suppliers and customers only as
a channel for maintaining business relationships. Once firms develop a certain level
of confidence on the benefits of e-mail in the conduct of business transactions and
the potential of creating sales from its use, they usually consider the option of developing their own Web site.
Studies commissioned by The Asia Foundation on the extent of ICT use among SMEs
in the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia, show common use patterns, such as:
1. wide use of the Internet for e-mail because of the recognized cost and efficiency
2. use of Web sites more for promotion than for online sales or e-commerce, indicating that SMEs in these countries are still in the early stages of e-commerce;
3. common use of the Internet for basic research; and
4. inclination to engage more in offline transactions than in e-commerce because
of security concerns.
SMEs go through different stages in adopting e-commerce. They start with creating
a Web site primarily to advertise and promote the company and its products and
services. When these firms begin generating traffic, inquiries and, eventually, sales
through their Web sites, they are likely to engage in e-commerce. Box 13. Women and Global Web-Based Marketing:
The Case of the Guyanan Weavers’ Cooperative
The Guyanan Weavers’ Cooperative is an organization founded by 300 women from the
Wapishana and Macushi tribes in Guyana, northern South America. The cooperative
revived the ancient art of hammock weaving using 19th century accounts and illustrations
of the hammocks made by European travelers and the cultivation of cotton on small family
plots and hand-weaving. The organization then hired someone to create a Web site,
which was instrumental in bringing their wares online. Not long after, in the mid-1990s, the
group of weavers (the Rupununi Weavers Society) was able to sell hammocks to Queen
Elizabeth, Prince Philip, the Smithsonian Institute, and the British Museum. Since 1998, they
have sold about 20 hammocks through the Internet at $1,000 per piece. This case also
shows that SMEs have great potential to compete in markets for high-end, bespoke
products despite the low sales volume. 31 In addition, many Web sites providing market and technical information, agronomic
advice and risk management tools for SMEs (to coffee and tea farmers in developing
countries, for example) have emerged.53
What are the obstacles, problems and issues faced by SMEs in their use of ICT in
business or in engaging in e-commerce?
According to recent surveys conducted in select Southeast Asian countries, the
perceived external barriers to e-commerce include the unfavorable economic environment, the high cost of ICT, and security concerns. The internal barriers are poor
internal communications infrastructure within SME firms, lack of ICT awareness and
knowledge as well as inadequacy of ICT-capable and literate managers and workers,
insufficient financial resources, and the perceived lack of relevance or value-added of
ICTs to their business.
In general, the main issues of concern that act as barriers to the increased uptake of
information technology and e-commerce are the following:
● Lack of awareness and understanding of the value of e-commerce. Most
SMEs in developing countries have not taken up e-commerce or use the Internet
because they fail to see the value of e-commerce to their businesses. Many think
e-commerce is suited only to big companies and that it is an additional cost that
will not bring any major returns on investment. ● Lack of ICT knowledge and skills. People play a vital role in the development
of e-commerce. However, technology literacy is still very limited in most developing countries. There is a shortage of skilled workers among SMEs, a key
issue in moving forward with using information technology in business. There
are also doubts about whether SMEs can indeed take advantage of the benefits of accessing the global market through the Internet, given their limited
capabilities in design, distribution, marketing, and post-sale support. While the
Internet can be useful in accessing international design expertise, SMEs are
not confident that they can command a premium on the prices for their goods
unless they offer product innovations. They can, however, capitalize on returns
on the basis that they are the low cost providers. Furthermore, more often than not, the premium in design has already been captured-for example, in the textile products industry-by the branded fashion houses.
SMEs doubt whether Web presence will facilitate their own brand recognition on a
● Financial costs. Cost is a crucial issue. The initial investment for the adoption
of a new technology is proportionately heavier for small than for large firms. The
high cost of computers and Internet access is a barrier to the uptake of e-commerce. Faced with budgetary constraints, SMEs consider the additional costs of
ICT spending as too big an investment without immediate returns. 32 Many SMEs find marketing on the Internet expensive. Having a Web site is not
equivalent to having a well-visited Web site. One reason is that there may be
no critical mass of users. Another reason is the challenge of anonymity for
SMEs. Because of the presence of numerous entrepreneurs in the Internet, it
seems that brand recognition matters in order to be competitive. Moreover, it is
not enough that a Web site is informative and user-friendly; it should also be
updated frequently. Search engines must direct queries to the Web site, and
news about the site must be broadly disseminated. Significantly, the experience of many OECD countries attests to the fact that the best e-marketing
strategies are not better substitutes for the conventional form of media.55 One
solution may be to encourage several SMEs to aggregate their information on
a common Web site, which in turn would have the responsibility of building
recognition/branding by hyperlinking or updating, for example.
● Infrastructure. The national network/physical infrastructure of many developing countries is characterized by relatively low teledensity, a major barrier to e-commerce.
There are also relatively few main phone lines for business use among SMEs. ● Security. Ensuring security of payments and privacy of online transactions is
key to the widespread acceptance and adoption of e-commerce. While the
appropriate policies are in place to facilitate e-commerce, lack of trust is still a
barrier to using the Internet to make online transactions. Moreover, credit card
usage in many developing countries is still relatively low.56
Also, consumers are reluctant to use the Internet for conducting transactions
with SMEs due to the uncertainty of the SMEs’ return policy and use of data. ● Other privacy- and security-related issues.57 While security is commonly used
as the catch-all word for many different reasons why individuals and firms do
not engage in extensive e-commerce and use of Internet-based technologies,
there are other related reasons and unresolved issues, such as tax evasion,
privacy and anonymity, fraud adjudication, and legal liability on credit cards. In
many countries, cash is preferred not only for security reasons but also because of a desire for anonymity on the part of those engaged in tax evasion or
those who simply do not want others to know where they are spending their
money. Others worry that there is lack of legal protection against fraud (i.e.,
there is no provision for adjudicating fraud and there may be no legal limit on
liability, say, for a lost or stolen credit card). It is necessary to distinguish these
concerns from the general security concerns (i.e., transaction privacy, protection and security) since they may not be addressed by the employment of an
effective encryption method (or other security measure). Is e-commerce helpful to the women sector? How has it helped in empowering women?
In general, the Internet and e-commerce have empowered sectors previously discriminated against. The Guyanan experience can attest to this. 33 Women have gained a foothold in many e-commerce areas. In B2C e-commerce,
most success stories of women-empowered enterprises have to do with marketing
unique products to consumers with disposable income. The consumers are found
largely in developed countries, implying that there is a need for sufficient infrastructure for the delivery of products for the business to prosper and establish credibility.
For example, if an enterprise can venture into producing digital goods such as music
or software that can be transmitted electronically or if such goods can be distributed
and/or delivered locally, then this is the option that is more feasible and practicable.
Aside from the Guyanan experience, there are many more successful cases of ecommerce ventures that the women sector can emulate. Some concrete examples
are: Tortasperu.com (http://www.tortasperu.com.pe), a business involving the marketing cakes in Peru run by women in several Peruvian cities; Ethiogift (http://
ethiogift.com), involving Ethiopians buying sheep and other gifts over the Internet to
deliver to their families in other parts of the country, thereby dispensing with the
physical delivery of goods abroad; and the Rural Women’s Association of the Northern Province of South Africa, which uses the Web to advertise its chickens to rich
clients in Pietersburg.58
While most of the examples involve B2C e-commerce, it must be noted that women
are already engaged in wholesale distribution businesses in developing countries.
Thus, they can begin to penetrate B2B or B2G markets. Box 14. Women Empowerment in Bangladesh:
The Case of the Grameen Village Phone Network
The Grameen Village Phone Network is a classic example of women’s empowerment in
Bangladesh. Operators of the village phones are all poor women (who have been selected
for their clean and strong credit record). These village phones are regularly visited by
members of male-dominated villages. Notably, the women entrepreneurs (village operators)
enjoy wider discretion in expending their profits from their phone services than with their
household income. What is the role of government in the development of e-commerce in developing countries?
While it is generally agreed that the private sector should take the lead role in the
development and use of e-commerce, the government plays an instrumental role
in encouraging e-commerce growth through concrete practicable measures such
1. Creating a favorable policy environment for e-commerce; and
2. Becoming a leading-edge user of e-commerce and its applications in its operations, and a provider to citizens of e-government services, to encourage its
mass use. 34 What is a favorable policy environment for e-commerce?
Among the public policy issues in electronic commerce that governments should
take heed of are:
● “bridging the digital divide” or promoting access to inexpensive and easy access
to information networks;
legal recognition of e-commerce transactions;
consumer protection from fraud;
protection of consumers’ right to privacy;
legal protection against cracking (or unauthorized access to computer systems);
protection of intellectual property. Measures to address these issues must be included in any country’s policy and legal
framework for e-commerce. It is important that government adopt policies, laws and
incentives that focus on promoting trust and confidence among e-commerce participants and developing a national framework that is compatible with international norms
on e-commerce (covering for instance, contract enforcement, consumer protection,
liability assignment, privacy protection, intellectual property rights, cross-border trade,
and improvement of delivery infrastructure, among others59).
How can government use e-commerce60?
Government can use e-commerce in the following ways:
● ● ● E-procurement. Government agencies should be able to trade electronically
with all suppliers using open standards-through ‘agency enablement’ programs,
‘supplier enablement’ programs, and e-procurement information systems.
Customs clearance. With the computerization of customs processes and operations (i.e., electronic submission, processing and electronic payment; and
automated systems for data entry to integrate customs tables, codes and preassessment), one can expect more predictable and more precise information
on clearing time and delivery shipments, and increased legitimate revenues.
Tax administration. This includes a system for electronic processing and transmission of tax return information, online issuances of tax clearances, permits,
and licenses, and an electronic process registration of businesses and new
taxpayers, among others. More often than not, the e-commerce initiatives of government are a barometer
indicating whether or not the infrastructure supports e-commerce use by private
firms. This means that if government is unable to engage in e-procurement, secure records online, or have customs fees remitted electronically, then the private sector will also have difficulties in e-commerce uptake. Virtually, the benefits from e-commerce accrue to the government, as the experiences of some
countries reflect.61 35 Are existing legal systems sufficient to protect those engaged in e-commerce?
Unfortunately, the existing legal systems in most developing countries are not sufficient
to protect those engaged in e-commerce. For instance, with respect to contracts, existing laws were conceived at a time when the word “writing,” “document” and “signature”
referred to things in paper form. On the other hand, in today’s electronic business
transactions paper is not used for record-keeping or entering into contracts.
Another important and common legal issue faced by many developing countries is
uncertainty regarding whether the courts will accept electronic contracts or documents and/or electronic signatures as evidence. One view is that the issue of admissibility of electronically generated evidence will not be resolved unless a law
specifically referring to it is passed. This gap in existing legal systems has caused
the emergence of at least two divergent views: one bordering on the conservative
interpretation of the word “document” as to exclude non-paper-based ones; and
the other involving a liberal construction, which allows electronic counterparts of
In the ASEAN region, only three countries-Singapore (Singapore Electronic Transactions Act), Malaysia (Cyberlaws), and the Philippines (Philippine E-commerce
Act)-have a legal framework for e-commerce. These frameworks provide for the
legal recognition of electronic documents and signatures and penalize common
crimes and offenses committed in cyberspace.
What other relevant policy issues should be addressed?
Other policy issues concern basic prerequisites of infrastructure for successful ecommerce, as follows:
1. Telecoms pricing and performance
One of the aims of telecommunications policy and legislation should be to ensure
that the public has access to basic telecommunications services at a reasonable
cost. The goal should ultimately be universal access or widespread access to
reliable information and communication services at a reasonable cost and its availability at a reasonable distance.
To enhance the quality of telecommunications services, policies should encourage:
● open access, which refers to the absence of non-competitive practices by
● open architecture, which pertains to the design of a system that facilitates
interconnection among different systems and services currently and as they
develop over time; and
● flexible access, which pertains to interconnected and interoperable networks
of telecommunications, broadcasting, and electronic publishing, where the format will be digital and the bandwidth will be adjusted according to the demands
of the user and the character of communications.62 36 2. Quality and speed of distribution logistics (i.e., roads and bridges)
Roads and bridges, especially in developing countries, still form part of the e-commerce infrastructure. Very few goods are delivered over the information infrastructure or the Internet (the exceptions are music and software). Most of the goods
purchased over the Internet are still delivered the conventional way (i.e., physical
delivery). Hence, poor roads and bridges, inefficient transport systems, coupled
with the high cost of international parcel services and bureaucratic customs clearance processes, are major obstacles in the uptake of e-commerce in developing
countries.63 Government should therefore create a policy environment that will:
● encourage investments in the national physical and transport infrastructure; and
● provide for electronic customs clearance processing to streamline the bureaucracy and allow for more transparent, predictable and efficient customs operations.
Both of these will contribute to the reduction of distribution and logistics costs.
How can government intervene in the promotion and development of e-commerce
The following are the more relevant areas for government intervention with respect
to SME uptake of e-commerce:64
E-SME Development. The market ultimately drives e-commerce development, but
it is the private sector that fuels it. Government can provide incentives to encourage widespread e-commerce use by SMEs. An “e-SME development program” in
which various sectors can provide technical assistance to SMEs to promote ecommerce uptake, can also be developed. Banks, financial lending and training
institutions, and corporations should be encouraged to develop “SME desks” that
will address the specific needs of SMEs. In particular, steps should be taken to:
● provide incentives to individuals to become entrepreneurs by lowering borrowing rates;
provide incentives to SMEs that intend to use e-commerce in their business
broaden credit extension facilities to SMEs in order for them to use ICT and ecommerce; and
offer discounts on business solution software packages and software licenses. Moreover, big businesses and corporations should be encouraged to transfer technology to SMEs by offering them free training in ICT and e-commerce.
Awareness Campaign. Evidence suggests that SMEs have insufficient knowledge
of information technology and e-commerce. Many SMEs have identified their lack
of knowledge of technology as one of the main barriers to using e-commerce. Government and private sector partnerships can engage in a campaign to disseminate information to SMEs about e-commerce policies, best practices, success stories, and 37 opportunities and obstacles relating to the use of ICTs and e-commerce. These awareness campaigns could include free training courses and workshops on e-commerce,
security and privacy, awards programs, and information centers to assist SMEs.
Ultimately, this information campaign should come in the form of an overall e-commerce development strategy for the economy, focusing on its various innovative applications for SMEs.
E-Government. Government should be the lead-user of e-commerce if various business and private-sector related activities are to be prompted to move online. In effect,
government becomes a positive influence. E-government can take the form of various
online transactions such as company registration, taxation, applications for a variety
of employee- and business-related requirements, and the like.
Network Infrastructure and Localization of Content. A developed national information infrastructure is a necessary, though not a sufficient, condition for e-commerce uptake of SMEs. Without reliable and inexpensive telecommunications and
other information services, SMEs will not be able to go online. An important strategy in this regard is the construction of “telecenters” or electronic community centers
that would serve as a community-shared access and connectivity platform especially
in the rural areas (e.g., an electronic agri-information center which provides market
information to farmers in rural areas). These telecenters can also be a venue for
capacity building, skills enhancement, training, communications and content development.65 Government can also adopt agglomerative approaches to Internet use to
reduce costs (e.g., export aggregators, such as B2B or B2C portals/exchanges for
SMEs, which will facilitate trading with fellow SMEs and with other companies in the
Strengthening Consumer Protection. Among the more common trust-related issues that SMEs take note of in considering whether to engage in e-commerce are:
where and how payment takes place (whether real or virtual); when settlement
takes place (before, during or after the transaction); who settles; whether the transaction is B2B or B2C; and whether settlement can be traced. Generally, however,
among e-commerce users in developing countries, including SMEs, there is very
low willingness to provide sensitive financial information over the Internet.66 On the
other hand, consumers have reservations about transacting with SMEs through the
Internet due to the lack of a clear policy on returns and use of data. To address this
explicit in their Web sites.
A more comprehensive measure that government can undertake to ensure security in
e-commerce transactions is the establishment of a Certification Authority, which verifies seller and buyer identities, examines transactions and security procedures, and
issues digital certificates to those who are able to meet the set security standards. A
good example of this government effort is Singapore’s Certification Authority, Netrust.
This suggestion does not to discount the importance of private-driven security solutions such as Web sites like Hypermart, which host and build storefronts for SMEs
while providing them a common system for secure payments.68 38 Box. 15. Data Protection and Transaction Security
Transaction security pertains to three important components and related issues, namely:
● Transaction Privacy, which means that transactions must be held private and intact, with
unauthorized users unable to understand the message content;
● Transaction Confidentiality, implying that traces of transactions must be dislodged from the
public network and that absolutely no intermediary is permitted to hold copies of the transaction unless authorized to do so; and
● Transaction Integrity, which pertains to the importance of protecting transactions from
unlawful interference-i.e., transactions must be kept unaltered and unmodified.
In an open network like the Internet, it seems difficult to ensure these. There are, however,
technological solutions that seek to address these security concerns. These solutions usually
come in the form of authorization schemes, i.e., programs that make sure that only authorized
users can gain access to information resources such as user accounts, files, and databases.
Typical examples of authorization schemes are: password protection, encrypted smart cards,
biometrics (e.g., fingerprinting, iris-scanning), and firewalls.67 A firewall is a system of
cryptographic methods supported by perimeter guards to ensure the safe arrival and storage
of information and its protection from internal and external threats. The most common data and
transaction and data security scheme is encryption, which involves a set of secret codes that
defends sensitive information crossing over online public channels. It makes information
indecipherable except to those with a decryption/decoding key. Government can also provide guidelines for SMEs in the development of a system of
collaborative ratings, which these entrepreneurs can display on their Web sites not only
to inform but also to assure their consumers of security. For instance, in electronic
exchanges, customers should be able to rate suppliers in terms of quality of product or
service and speed of delivery, among others. To minimize fraud, certain safeguards
should be built into the rating system like imposing the requirement of presenting evidence of purchase before one’s rating can count, with ratings of regular customers
having more weight. Trends in ratings and comments should be made readily available to
all users. SMEs should also be encouraged through appropriate government incentive
schemes to participate in internationally accredited Web-based online rating schemes.69
Government can also design and establish a legal and judiciary framework that provides
for minimum standards of and requirements for transparency, impartiality and timeliness. While in many developing countries this may be a very ambitious goal, in the
medium term SMEs may use self-regulated codes of conduct covering, for example,
return policy, data protection, and acceptable forms of content, that are applicable within
associations, cooperatives or their respective groups of peers and e-entrepreneurs.70 It is
important to have not only a rating system but also an enforcement regime that people trust.
Human Resources Development. The government can initiate pilot projects and
programs for capability-building, training and e-commerce support services, such
as Web design. In Kenya, for instance, the youth from Nairobi’s slums are being
trained in Web design skills.
In general, government initiatives should be in line with current efforts in the foregoing
areas of concern. Coordination with development cooperation agencies is important
to avoid any duplication of initiatives and efforts. 39 FOR FURTHER READING
Primers and Reports
Business Software Alliance. 2001. E-commerce and Developing Markets: Technology, Trade and Opportunity.
Coward, Chris. August 2002. Obstacles to Developing an Offshore IT-Enabled Services Industry in Asia: The View from the US. A report prepared for the Center for
Internet Studies, University of Washington.
E-commerce/Internet: B2B:2B or Not 2B? Version 1.1, Goldman Sachs Investment
Research (November 1999 and September 14, 1999 issues)
Japan External Trade Organization. February 2002. Electronic Commerce in APEC
Economies: Focusing on Electric/Electronic Parts Procurements.
Lallana, Emmanuel C, Patricia J. Pascual, Zorayda Ruth B. Andam. April 2002.
SMEs and eCommerce in Three Philippine Cities. A study/report prepared for the
Asia Foundation by Digital Philippines.
________________. January 2002. SMEs and e-commerce. A study/report prepared for The Asia Foundation, Castle Asia.
Lallana, Emmanuel, Rudy S. Quimbo and Zorayda Ruth B. Andam. 2000. E-Primer:
An Introduction to E-commerce. DAI-AGILE, a USAID-funded project.
Mann, Catherine with Sue E. Eckert and Sarah Cleeland Knight. 2000. Global Electronic Commerce: A Policy Primer. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.
Bonnett, Kendra. 2000. An IBM Guide to Doing Business on the Internet. U.S.A.:
Cronin, Mary J. 2000. Unchained Value: The New Logic of Digital Business. U.S.A.:
Harvard Business School Press.
Cronin, Mary J., ed. 1998. Banking and Finance on the Internet. U.S.A.: John Wiley
Evans, Philip and Thomas S. Wurster. 2000. Blown to Bits: How the New Economics
of Information Transforms Strategy. U.S.A.: Harvard Business School Press.
Kalakota, Ravi and Andrew B. Whinston. 1997. Electronic Commerce: A Manager’s
Guide. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 40 Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 2001. e-Volve: Succeeding in the Digital Culture of Tomorrow. U.S.A.: Harvard Business School Press.
Lamont, Douglas. 2001. Conquering the Wireless World: The Age of m-Commerce.
United Kingdom: Capstone Publishing Inc.
Plant, Robert. 2000. eCommerce Formulation of Strategy. U.S.A.: Prentice Hall Inc.
Rosen, Anita. 2000. The E-commerce Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide
for Business Managers. American Management Association.
Smith, Dayle. 2001. The E-business Book: A Step-by-Step Guide to E-commerce
and Beyond. Princeton: Bloomberg Press.
Tapscott, Don, David Ticoll and Alex Lowy. 2000. Digital Capital: Harnessing the
Power of Business Webs. Great Britain: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Young, Patrick and Thomas Theys. 1999. Capital Market Revolution: The Future of
Marlets in an Online World. Great Britain: Pearson Education Limited.
Publications by Catherine Mann
Mann, Catherine. Forthcoming. “Balance and Overlap in the Global Electronic Marketplace: The UCITA Example.” Washington University Journal of Law & Policy.
________________. 2002. “Electronic Commerce, Networked Readiness, and Trade
Competitiveness.” In Geoffrey Kirkman et al. eds. Global IT Readiness Report.
Harvard University and World Economic Forum.
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and the WTO: A Handbook. Washington DC: The World Bank.
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Isabella Falautano and Paolo Guerrieri, eds. “Beyond Seattle: A New Strategic
Approach in the WTO 2000,” IAI Quaderni No. 11, Rome. An English version is
available as IIE Working Paper no. 007, October 2000.
________________. August 2000. “Global Electronic Commerce: Challenge and
Opportunity for Government Policy.” In Company Secretary. Hong Kong Institute of
________________. July 17, 2000. “Global Electronic Commerce: Macroeconomic
Benefits and Policy Choices.” Invited Op-Ed, Nikkei Journal (Tokyo).
________________. 2000. “Electronic Commerce in Developing Countries: Issues for Domestic Policy and WTO Negotiations.” In Robert Stern, ed. Services 41 in the International Economy: Measurement, Modeling, Sectoral and Country
Studies, and Issues in the World Services Negotiations. University of Michigan
________________. October 21, 1999. “Liberalizing Services: Key to Faster Global Growth and the Sustainability of the US Trade Deficit.” Testimony before the
Subcommittee on International Trade of the Senate Finance Committee.
________________ with Sarah Cleeland Knight. July 2000. “Electronic Commerce
in the World Trade Organization.” In Jeffrey Schott, ed. The WTO After Seattle.
Institute for International Economics.
From The McKinsey Quarterly 2000 (The New World of Personal Financial Services). No. 3:
- “Will the Banks Control Online Banking?” by Sandra Boss, Devin McGranahan,
and Asheet Mehta, p. 70
- “The Future for Bricks and Mortar” by Matthias M. Bekier, Dorlisa K. Flur, and
Seelan J. Singham, p. 78
- “Banking on the Device” by David Maude, Raghunath R, Anupan Sahay, and
Peter Sands, p.86
- “How E-tailing Can Rise from the Ashes” by Joanna Barsh, Blair Crawford, and
Chris Grosso, p. 98
- “Building Retail Brands” by Terilyn A. Henderson and Elizabeth A. Mihas, p. 110
- “M-Commerce: An Operator’s Manual” by Nick Barnett, Stephen Hodges, and
Michael J. Wilshire, p. 162
- “The Real Business of B2B” by Glenn Ramsdell, p. 174
From The McKinsey Quarterly 2000 (What Mergers Miss). No. 4:
- “Marketing Lessons from E-failures” by Vittoria Varianini and Diana Vaturi, p.
- “From Products to Ecosystems: Retail 2010,” p. 108
From The McKinsey Quarterly 2000 (e-performance). No. 1:
- “E-performance: The Path to Rational Exuberance” by Vikas Agrawal, Luis D.
Arjona and Ron Lemmens, p. 30
- “B2Basics” by Ryan Kerrigan, Eric V. Roegner, Dennis D. Swinford and Craig
C. Zawada, p. 44
- “Beyond the Business Unit” by Russell Eisenstat, Nathaniel Footye, Jay Galbraith,
and Danny Miller, p. 54
Digital Economy for Communities and SMEs Development, 19-21 June, 2002, Siam
Intercontinental Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand by APEC Electronic Commerce Training
Center (Workshop on Electronic Commerce Policy and Regional Cooperation). 42 Links
APEC Task Force on Electronic Commerce homepage. http://www.dfat.gov.au/apec/
Business Software Alliance homepage. http://www.bsa.org
E-ASEAN Task Force homepage. http://www.e-aseantf.org
Electronic Commerce World Journal homepage. http://www.ecworld.utexas.edu
International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO homepage. http://www.intracen.org
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development homepage. http://
United Nations International Computing Centre homepage. http://www.unicc.org
World Customs Organisation homepage. http:// www.wcoomd.org
Varian, Hal R. Markets for Information Goods (University of California, Berkeley: April
1998, revised October 16, 1998). Available from
http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/edu/~hal/Papers/japan/. Accessed 25 September 2002. 43 NOTES
1 Anita Rosen, The E-commerce Question and Answer Book (USA: American Management
Association, 2000), 5.
MK, Euro Info Correspondence Centre (Belgrade, Serbia), “E-commerce-Factor of Economic Growth;” available from http://www.eicc.co.yu/newspro/viewnews.cgi?
newsstart3end5; Internet; accessed 25 September 2002.
Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Measuring Electronic Business: Definitions, Underlying Concepts, and Measurement Plans.
Definition adapted and expanded from Emmanuel Lallana, Rudy Quimbo, Zorayda Ruth
Andam, ePrimer: An Introduction to eCommerce (Philippines: DAI-AGILE, 2000), 2.
Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4. Cf. Ravi Kalakota and Andrew B. Whinston, Electronic Commerce: A Manager’s Guide (USA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1997), 19-20.
Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4.
Breakdown of the International Data Corp.
“E-commerce/Internet: B2B: 2B or Not 2B?” (Goldman Sachs Investment Research,
November 1999), v. 1.1, 16,68-71.
Kalakota and Whinston, 18-19.
Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4.
To be discussed in the succeeding sections of this primer.
Kalakota and Whinston, 20-21.
TA Project, “E-commerce;” available from http://www.tab.fzk.de/en/projekt/skizze/ecommerce.htm; Internet; accessed 26 September 2002.
Traderinasia.com; available from http://www.traderinasia.com/classifieds.html; Internet;
accessed 26 September 2002.
whatis.com, searchWebServices.com; available from http://whatis.com/
Cf. Kalakota and Whinston, 7-11.
Cf. Business Software Alliance, eCommerce and Developing Markets, 17-18.
For a more extensive discussion on convergence, refer to Edwin S. Soriano, Nets, Webs,
and The Information Infrastructure.
Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 13.
Adapted from the inputs and comments on this primer of Mr. Chris Coward.
Industry Canada, Canada’s Business and Consumer Site; available from http://
strategis.gc.ca; accessed 26 September 2002..
Lallana, Quimbo and Andam, 2.
Michael Chait, “Is the Dot Com Bust Coming to an End?” (July 8, 2002); available from http:/
/www.Internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/1381331; accessed 26 September 2002.
Reshma Kapadia, “What caused the dot-com bust?”; available from http://
www.news24.com/News24/Technology/0,1113,2-13_1142765,00.html; accessed 26 September 2002.
Reid Goldscborough, “Viewpoint-Personal Computing: Forget The Dot-Com Bust, There’s
Still Money To Be Made;” available from http://www.industryweek.com/Columns/Asp/
columns.asp?ColumnId=881; accessed September 26, 2002.
Lynda M. Applegate, excerpts form the E-business Handbook (The St. Lucie Press,
2002); available from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/tools/print_item.jhtml?id=3007&t=ecommerce;
accessed 26 September 2002. 44 32 Network economies of scale are attained when an aggregate of firms or organizations
share a common infrastructure, capabilities and client base for faster, better and more
cost-efficient production and distribution of products and services.
Network economies of scope allow firms and/or organizations within the same network/
virtual community to share the infrastructure for the production and distribution of new
products and services and for creating and/or entering new markets or launching new
businesses more effectively and efficiently than competitors.
Integrated supply chains enable distributors to link their suppliers with their business
Integrated buy chains enable distributors to link producers to consumers.
Suganthi, Balachandher and Balachandran, “Internet Banking Patronage: An Empirical
Investigation of Malaysia;” available from http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/jibc/
0103_01.htm; accessed 26 September 2002.
This section is best read in relation to the discussion on B2C.
To be included in Retail Forward’s Top e-retailers, the company should have generated
at least 50% of its sales from direct-to-consumer (DTC) retail.
42 Online Revenues (in billions of dollars)
0.32 CAUCE (Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial E-mail); available from http://
www.cauce.org/about/problem.shtml. Accessed 26 September 2002.
Andrea Goldstein and David O’Connor, E-commerce for Development: Prospects and
Policy Issues, (OECD Development Centre, September 2000); available from http//
www.oecd.org/dev/publication/tp1a.htm; accessed 26 September 2002.
Noah Elkin, “Developing Countries Meeting e-business Challenge,” February 5, 2003.
According to 2003 figures of AMI-Partners, a research group on small enterprise market.
Most artisans are women living in very remote villages. Their being isolated may be why
their crafts have survived.
Goldstein and O’Conner.
Goldstein and O’Conner.
Ibid. 45 56 Emmanuel Lallana, Patricia J. Pascual, and Zorayda Ruth Andam, SMEs and E-commerce: The Philippine Case; Cf. SMEs and E-commerce: The Case of Indonesia, prepared for The Asia Foundation by Castle Asia
Adapted from the inputs and comments on this primer by Dr. Catherine Mann.
Nancy Hafkin and Nancy Taggart, “Gender, Information Technology, and Developing
Countries: An Analytical Study,” June 2001.
For an extensive discussion of e-government initiatives, please refer to the primer on “EGovernment” by Patricia J. Pascual.
Adapted from the inputs and comments on this primer by Dr. Catherine Mann. For more
information, refer to “Benchmarking e-Government: A Global Perspective” by UN-DPEPA
and ASPA and “E-Government in the Philippines: Benchmarking Against Global Best Practices” by Emmanual C. Lallana, Patricia J. Pascual and Edwin S. Soriano.
Department of Trade and Communications. “An Infocomms Policy for the Information
Economy: A Consultative Paper,” December 2000.
Lallana, Quimbo and Andam, 14.
Lallana, Pascual and Andam; Cf. SMEs and E-commerce: The Case of Indonesia.
Goldstein and O’Conner.
Firewalls act as a filter between a corporate network and the Internet, keeping the
corporate network secure from intruders but allowing authenticated corporate users uninhibited access to the Internet (Source: Kalakota and Whinston).
Ibid., Cf. ITC, 2000.
Ibid. 46 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Zorayda Ruth B. Andam is an incoming 5th year (senior) law student of the University
of the Philippines. She has a bachelor’s degree in Business Economics, also from
the University of the Philippines. She is co-author of e-primer: An Introduction to
Electronic Commerce (2000) and SMEs and e-Commerce in Three Philippine Cities
(April 2003). Ms. Adam was part of the USAID team that provided technical assistance to the Philippine Government in the development and passage of the country’s
e-Commerce Law. 47 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to thank her peer reviewers, Dr. Catherine Mann (Senior Fellow
of the Institute for Inernational Economics), Mr. Chris Coward (Director of the Center
for Internet Studies) and Mr. Carter Eltzroth (Senior Vice President, Global Public
Policy, MIH Group) for their valuable inputs to this primer. ...
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