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C155- Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing Practice1Heidi BarsnessPathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing PracticeWestern Governors UniversityMarch 18, 2020
2C155- Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing PracticeA.Investigated Disease ProcessObesity, what is it and why does it affect so many people? I have heard several people in my life and around me say, "I am getting fat, I feel obese." Is that what obesity is, a feeling? Gaining a few pounds over the winter or while you are on vacation, is that the definition of obesity is? Or have we as a society made this the definition because of the media portraying everyone needs to be a size one to be “thin”. The definition of obesity ismost commonly defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than thirty and severe obesity defined as a BMI of greater than forty.Using this criterion, more than one-third of American adults are obese, and an additional one-third are overweight (BMI greater than twenty-five but less than thirty) (McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E., 2019). Researchers say obesity is not a disease but has a strong correlation to environmental effects (diet and exercise) and many genes (especially those genes that encode leptin) play a role.I have struggled with my weight all my life. I remember, the first time I was called fat by a boy in my first-grade class. It was not just one time he did this to me, it was daily, several times a day. This made me feel horrible and my self-confidence from that time on was nothing. I labeled myself as fat and struggled with yo-yo dieting, on and off weight loss medications and even had a weight loss surgery that almost kill me. I was heavier than I should have been in my childhood, teens, and twenties but I never met the true definition of obesity until I was in my thirties. In my forties, I finally understand just because obesity is not classified as a disease does not mean it cannot cause several wide know diseases. Diseases such as stroke, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and several cancers. I have a high family history of all of these diseases, and I have decided to solve my issue with obesity, so I do not end up in an early grave.A1. Pathophysiology
3C155- Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing PracticeObesity is an amplified form of normal adiposity and is a prime player in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 2, heart disease such as hypertension and is largely dueto its secretion of an inordinate amount of adipokines. Adipokines is a cytokine that is produced by adipose tissue and acts in an autocrine-paracrine form or systemically as a hormone. The brain regulates food intake and within the brain sits the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus’s key function is to detect a shortage of nutrient supply and convert them into behaviors. There are chemical neurons that are sensitive in circulating metabolites and hormones then signal the availability of energy, such as leptin, phrelin, insulin, and glucose, in addition to neural signals