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CHAPTER 3 - absorptive surface area of the small intestine...

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CHAPTER 3: THE BASICS OF DIGESTION Dr. Olfert's Brief Topic Overview Taste and aroma are important qualities in foods that affect the flavors therefore influencing your desire to eat them. The five basic categories of taste are sweet, salty, bitter, and savory. Digestion is the chemical or mechanical breaking down of food into smaller units so that it can be absorbed for use by the body. Digestion and absorption take place in the gastrointestinal tract which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. You begin breaking down food in the mouth by chewing. Once swallowed, a bolus of food is pushed down your esophagus by peristalsis. The stomach churns and contracts mixing food with digestive juices to form chyme. Chyme is gradually released into the small intestine during digestion. The small intestine is the primary organ for digestion and absorption. It is covered with thousands of small projections called villi which increase the
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Unformatted text preview: absorptive surface area of the small intestine. By the time food reaches the large intestine, the majority of the nutrients have been absorbed. The cells of the large intestine absorb water and electrolytes. As fluids are absorbed stool is gradually formed and exits the body through the anus. Enzymes, hormones, and bile help break down foods and regulate digestion. The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are accessory organs for the gastrointestinal tract and are essential for digestion. Other body systems such as the nervous, circulatory, lymphatic, and excretory systems also play a role by reminding us to eat, distributing nutrients throughout our bodies, and excreting waste products. Digestive disorders can range from mild to severe problems. Disorders of the mouth, gallbladder, stomach, and intestines can include periodontal disease, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, peptic ulcers, gallbladder disease, constipation, diarrhea, and celiac disease, among others....
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