Notes 10-24-08

Notes 10-24-08 - -in plants the haploid part is more...

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Different forms of genes are referred to as alleles Location of a gene is a locus Genotype=the particular combination of alleles present in an individual Gametes= sex cells (sperm-male, egg-female) <have half the genetic material of the mother/father>; gametes are haploid Diploid individuals (with twice number of genetic material/chromosomes) produce the haploid gametes Union of egg and sperm fertilization First cell formed is the zygote Asexual reproduction in plants (hydra) -somatic cells (not involved in gamete production) -clones= identical copies meiosis involves halving the number of chromosomes; start with humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes; the two chromosomes making a pair are called homologous chromosomes) any chromosome not a sex chromosome is an autosome karyotype (set of an individual’s chromosomes; 22 pairs of autosomes) zygote undergoes mitotic divisions to become an adult -the only part of the human life cycle that is haploid is the gamete stage
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Unformatted text preview: -in plants, the haploid part is more prominent, unlike in humans merosis starts the haploid phase, fertilization starts the diploid stage meiosis starts with replication of DNA (sister chromatids connected at centromere) meiosis I separates the two homologous chromosomes meiosisII separates the two sister chromatids which chromosomes goes to which cell is random (law of indepentend assortment) crossing over (parts of the chromosomes recombine) random fertilization events (which sperm fertilizes which eggs is completely randsom) in prophase I –crossing over exhchange of the chromosome arms called chiasmata synapse-the holding together of homologous chromosomes during prophase I each zygote can creat 2 to the 23 x 2 to the 23 combinations evolution-change in gene frequencies of a population over time...
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Notes 10-24-08 - -in plants the haploid part is more...

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