chap01outline - Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and...

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology 1.1 Introduction (p. 3; Fig. 1.1) A. The earliest studies of anatomy and physiology probably dealt with treating illnesses and injuries. B. Early healers relied on superstitions and magic. C. Later, herbs were used to treat certain ailments. D. Eventually, the stage was set for the development of medicine with standardized terms in Greek and Latin. 1.2 Anatomy and Physiology (p. 4; Fig. 1.2) A. Anatomy deals with the structure (morphology) of the body and its parts. B. Physiology studies the functions of these parts. C. Anatomists rely on observation while physiologists employ experimentation. D. The functional role of a part depends on how it is constructed. 1.3 Characteristics of Life (p. 4) A. Fundamental characteristics of life are traits shared by all organisms. B. Characteristics of life include: 1. Movement (internal or gross) 2. Responsiveness (reaction to internal or external change) 3. Growth (increase in size without change in shape) 4. Reproduction (new organisms or new cells) 5. Respiration (use of oxygen; removal of CO 2 ) 6. Digestion (breakdown of food into simpler forms) 7. Absorption (movement of substances through membranes and into fluids) 8. Circulation (movement within body fluids) 9. Assimilation (changing nutrients into chemically different forms) 10. Excretion (removal of metabolic wastes) C. Taken together, these 10 characteristics constitute metabolism. 1.4 Maintenance of Life (p. 5) A. Requirements of Organisms 1. Life depends on the availability of the following: a. Water (required for metabolic reactions, for transport of substances, for temperature regulation) b. Food (nutrients needed to supply energy and raw materials for building new living matter) c. Oxygen (used in releasing energy from nutrients) d. Heat (a byproduct of metabolism; its presence governs the rate at which
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course PHYSIOLOGY Physiology taught by Professor Holes during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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chap01outline - Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and...

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