chap07outline - Chapter 7 - Skeletal System 7.1...

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Chapter 7 - Skeletal System 7.1 Introduction (p. 132) A. Bones are very active tissues B. Each bone is made up of several types of tissues and is an organ. 7.2 Bone Structure (p. 132) A. Bones differ in size and shape, yet are similar in several ways. B. Parts of a Long Bone (p. 132; Figs. 7.1-7.2) 1. Expanded ends of bones that form joints with adjacent bones are called epiphyses. 2. Articular cartilages (hyaline cartilage) cover the epiphyses. 3. The shaft of the bone is the diaphysis. 4. A tough layer of vascular connective tissue, called the periosteum, covers the bone and is continuous with ligaments and tendons. 5. A bone's shape makes possible its function; bony processes or grooves indicate places of attachment for muscles. 6. Compact bone makes up the wall of the diaphysis; the epiphyses are filled with spongy bone to reduce the weight of the skeleton. 7. The diaphysis contains a hollow medullary cavity that is lined with endosteum and filled with marrow. C. Microscopic Structure (p. 133; Fig. 7.3) 1. Bone cells (osteocytes) are located within lacunae that lie in concentric circles around osteonic canals. 2. Osteocytes communicate with each other by cellular processes in canaliculi. 3. Intercellular material consists of collagen and inorganic salts. 4. In compact bone, osteocytes and intercellular material are organized into osteons that are cemented together. 5. Osteonic canals contain blood vessels and nerve fibers, and extend longitudinally through bone. 6. Osteonic canals are interconnected by transverse perforating canals. 7. Unlike compact bone, the osteocytes and intercellular material in spongy bone are not arranged around osteonic canals. 7.3 Bone Development and Growth (p. 134) A. Bones form by replacing connective tissue in the fetus. B. Some form within sheetlike layers of connective tissue (intramembranous bones), while others replace masses of cartilage (endochondral bones). C. Intramembranous Bones (p. 134; Fig. 7.4) 1. The flat bones of the skull form as intramembranous bones that develop from layers of connective tissue. 2. Osteoblasts deposit bony tissue around themselves. 3. Once osteoblasts deposit bone are located in lacunae, they are called osteocytes. 4. Cells of the membranous connective tissue that lie outside the developing bone give rise to the periosteum. D. Endochondral Bones (p. 134; Fig. 7.5) 1. Most of the bones of the skeleton fall into this category. 2. They first develop as hyaline cartilage models and are then replaced with bone. 3. Cartilage is broken down in the diaphysis and progressively replaced with bone while the periosteum develops on the outside.
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4. Cartilage tissue is invaded by blood vessels and osteoblasts that first form spongy bone at the primary ossification center. 5.
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course PHYSIOLOGY Physiology taught by Professor Holes during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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chap07outline - Chapter 7 - Skeletal System 7.1...

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