chap16outline - Chapter 16 Respiratory System 16.1...

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16.1 Introduction (p. 453) A. The respiratory system consists of tubes that filter incoming air and transport it into the microscopic alveoli where gases are exchanged. B. The entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells is called respiration and consists of the following: ventilation, gas exchange between blood and lungs, gas transport in the bloodstream, gas exchange between the blood and body cells, and cellular respiration. 16.2 Organs of the Respiratory System (p. 453; Fig. 16.1; Table 16.1) A. The organs of the respiratory tract can be divided into two groups: the upper respiratory tract (nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx), and the lower respiratory tract (larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs). B. Nose (p. 453) 1. The nose, supported by bone and cartilage, provides an entrance for air in which air is filtered by coarse hairs inside the nostrils. C. Nasal Cavity (p. 453; Figs. 16.2-16.3) 1. The nasal cavity is a space posterior to the nose that is divided medially by the nasal septum. 2. Nasal conchae divide the cavity into passageways that are lined with mucous membrane, and help increase the surface area available to warm and filter incoming air. 3. Particles trapped in the mucus are carried to the pharynx by ciliary action, swallowed, and carried to the stomach where gastric juice destroys any microorganisms in the mucus. D. Paranasal Sinuses (p. 454) 1. Sinuses are air-filled spaces within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones of the skull. 2. These spaces open to the nasal cavity and are lined with mucus membrane that is continuous with that lining the nasal cavity. 3. The sinuses reduce the weight of the skull and serve as a resonant chamber to affect the quality of the voice. E. Pharynx (p. 455) 1. The pharynx is a common passageway for air and food. 2. The pharynx aids in producing sounds for speech. F. Larynx (p. 455; Figs. 16.4-16.5) 1. The larynx is an enlargement in the airway superior to the trachea and inferior to the pharynx. 2. It helps keep particles from entering the trachea and also houses the vocal cords. 3. The larynx is composed of a framework of muscles and cartilage bound by elastic tissue. 4. Inside the larynx, two pairs of folds of muscle and connective tissue covered with mucous membrane make up the vocal cords. a. The upper pair is the false vocal cords. b. The lower pair is the true vocal cords. c.
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course PHYSIOLOGY Physiology taught by Professor Holes during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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chap16outline - Chapter 16 Respiratory System 16.1...

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