15 state organization & national power

15 state organization & national power - CHAPTER...

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CHAPTER 15: STATE ORGANIZATION AND NATIONAL POWER CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Large-scale influences on state power A. Colonialism (Figure 15-1) 1. Driven by motives—economic self-interest and to bring Christianity to the rest of the world 2. At its height during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 3. Berlin Conference in 1884-1885 laid out colonial map of Africa 4. In addition to European countries, Russia and Japan built major empires 5. Colonial powers gained control over their empires by virtue of their economic, political, and military organization 6. Flows of raw materials were organized for the benefit of the colonial power 7. Infrastructures were built 8. Gave birth to a more globalized economic order B. Economic dimensions of power 1. Important to recognize the capacity of states to influence the economic trends a) Buy and sell strategic commodities b) control the assets of major international actors 2. Forces of colonialism played a key role in knitting together economies of widely separated areas 3. Being a colonial power is not a prerequisite to being an economic power 4. Many different ways of understanding the significance of a country’s position in the global economy 5. World-System Analysis a) View the world as an interlocked system of states b) Posit a world divided into three basic tiers c) Tiers not static d) Debate about the categories e) Perspective ties political geography more closely to economic geography C. Geopolitics 1. Ratzel's organic theory a) Held that a nation which is an aggregate of organisms would itself function and behave as an organism b) Gave rise to a subfield of political geography called geopolitics c) Term geopolitics fell into disuse after World War II d) Geopolitics is now used for the study of spatial and territorial dimensions of power relationships past, present, and future 3. Heartland theory —Sir Halford Mackinder a) Believed a land-based power, not a sea power, would ultimately rule the world
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15 state organization & national power - CHAPTER...

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