18 traditional farming - CHAPTER 18: TRADITIONAL...

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CHAPTER 18: TRADITIONAL LIVELIHOODS OF RURAL PEOPLES CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Introduction II. Classifying economic activities A. Primary activities 1. Hunting and gathering 2. Farming of all kinds 3. Livestock herding, fishing, forestry, and lumbering 4. Mining and quarrying 5. All are activities in the extractive sector B. Secondary activities 1. Concerned with the conversion of raw materials 2. An infinite range of production from simple to complex C. Tertiary activities 1. Service industries 2. Connect producers to consumers D. Quaternary (and quinary) activities 1. Quaternary—economic activities concerned with information and exchange of money or capital 2. Quinary—spheres of research and higher education III. The persistence of agriculture A. The United States in late 1994 had fewer than 2 million farmers 1. Mechanization and farm consolidation 2. Millions of small farmers driven off the land 3. Transformation of the United States’ economy to industrial and technological B. In the majority of the world's countries agriculture remains the leading employment sector IV. Ancient livelihoods in a modern world A. Introduction B. Before farming 1. Farming is a very recent innovation dating back a mere 12,000 years at most 2. Hunting and gathering, and sometimes fishing were the way of life 3. Some small groups still exist by hunting and gathering a) Most have been driven from the better land into less hospitable environments b) They know and exhaustively exploit their environment c) The group cannot become too large and they have no permanent settlement d) Their existence is not the same as that of our ancestors 4. Early human existence a) Hunted mammoth and other plentiful wildlife b) Communities were larger than those of today’s hunter and gathering people c) Learned to specialize to some extent in some area of production (1) Oak forests provided abundant harvests of nuts (2) Those near the Pacific Ocean became adept at salmon fishing (3) Bison provided sustenance in the North American plains region d) Some groups found better environments than others (1) They may have been able to become semi-sedentary (2) Forest margins may have provided advantages C. Terrain and tools
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1. Knowledge of terrain enhanced humankind's ability to sustain itself 2. The exploitation of resources improved over time 3. The evolution of tools a) First tools were clubs formed from tree limbs b) Bone and stone were next used c) Stone tools were fashioned into hand axes
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HUMANITIES Human Geog taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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18 traditional farming - CHAPTER 18: TRADITIONAL...

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