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19 landscapes of rural settlement

19 landscapes of rural settlement - CHAPTER 19 LANDSCAPES...

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CHAPTER 19: LANDSCAPES OF RURAL SETTLEMENT CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Introduction A. Shelter ranks high on the list of human needs 1. Dwellings serve several functions 2. A house reveals much about a region and its culture 3. Layout and function of ho uses give us an impression of social values and economic needs 4. Materials used in construction reflect local availability and purpose B. Spacing of housing 1. Dispersed settlement houses lie quite far apart 2. Nucleated settlement houses are group ed together in tiny clusters ( hamlets ) or larger clusters ( villages ) 3. Ground plan of villages can sometime help identify prevailing culture 4. Arrangement of houses in villages take many different forms II. Housing and landscape A. Our early ances tors 1. Assumed early humans lived in bands containing from a dozen to 50 or 60 individuals 2. Early humans perhaps lived in holes covered with branches and leaves in temporary campsites 3. Unlikely caves were the first dwelling places because many humans lived where no natural shelter was available B. Functional differentiation 1. As society developed communal living gave way to single family dwellings 2. Communities because larger and more highly organized 3. Chief or headman probably had a l arger and more imposing residence 4. Buildings for food storage and livestock shelter became necessary 5. Functional differentiation began in buildings example of Africa C. Environmental influences 1. Ample evidence human communities existed in wide ly separated areas 100,000 years ago 2. Migrating people had to protect themselves against the elements 3. Buildings reflect the adaptations required for environmental changes 4. Nomadic people needed lightweight transportable shelters such as tents 5. Example: the igloo built by the Inuit people 6.
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