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21 civilization & urbanization

21 civilization & urbanization - CHAPTER 21...

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CHAPTER 21: CIVILIZATION AND URBANIZATION CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Introduction A. Migration to the cities 1. Happening so fast monitoring agencies cannot agree on the pace 2. All indicators point to the world being predominantly urban in the twentieth - first century 3. Urbanization is not evenly distributed around the globe 4. In Western Europe, the United States, Canada, and Japan four out of five citizens live in cities 5. Shenzhen, China world's fastest - growing city during second half of the twentieth century 6. Calcutta and Mumbai, India two of the fastest growing cities, also rank among the ten largest B. The city is a recent phenomenon in human history 1. If human communities have existed for 100,000 years, they did not cluster into to wns until about 10,000 years ago 2. About 8000 years ago some human settlements began to grow into larger places II. Ancient cities and early civilizations A. Introduction 1. Egalitarian societies a) Early settlements remained villages for severa l thousand years b) Households had about the same amount of possessions and status c) No governmental authority existed beyond the village d) Had no public buildings 2. In Southwest Asia things began to change about 6000 B.P. a) Societies bec ame more complex with introduction of irrigation and larger - scale farming b) Social inequality was developing c) Government buildings and workshops appeared d) Village became more diversified B. Cities and states 1. As some villages grew la rger and increasing specialization took place, a greater need for political systems and structures occurred 2. As political development occurred so did the formation of the state 3. Anthropologists Wright and Johnson proposed existence of an early stat e can be deduced from the presence of a centralized political hierarchy with at least three levels of administration a) Analyzed area in present - day southwestern Iran b) Four larger "towns" could be identified c) One center was even larger than th ese four d) Believed it was a dominant urban center, probably capital, where power was concentrated e) Suggests a state arose there more than 5000 years ago 4.
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