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25 resources & regions

25 resources & regions - CHAPTER 25 RESOURCES AND...

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CHAPTER 25: RESOURCES AND REGIONS: THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Introduction II. Major industrial regions A. Only a small minority of countries have become major industrial economies 1. Many factors are involved 2. Legacy of the Industrial Revolution is evident in many older industrial complexes 3. Major industrial centers are now emerging in different countries B. When industrial concentrations are mapped, four primary industrial regions stand out 1. Each consists of one or more core areas 2. Notable shifts are occurring 3. Dispersal is especially evident in East Asia 4. Japan's dominance is being challenged 5. In North America, old eastern core is still dominant, but balance is shifting to west and south III. First-round industrialization: through World War I A. Development of global industrial patterns began in Europe 1. Were largely transformed between the late-eighteenth and early-twentieth centuries by diffusion of the Industrial Revolution (Figure 25-1) 2. The core areas are at the heart of the evolving European Union 3. Britain’s use of its colonial empire in building an industrial economy laid the foundations for the development of a world economy 4. When the Industrial Revolution spread to the mainland it first took root in southern 5. Paris was already continental Europe’s greatest city a) Did not have coal or iron deposits nearby b) When a railroad system was added the city’s centrality was further strengthened c) Soon attracted major industries 6. Three major manufacturing districts lay in Germany a) The Rühr b) Saxony district c) Silesia 7. Germany still ranks among the world’s leading produces of both coal and steel 8. Europe possessed a comparatively skilled labor force and high degree of specialization 9. By the twentieth century, industry began to diffuse far from the original European sources B. Manufacturing in North America 1. Began in New England as early as late colonial times and is still a light manufacturing region 2. Began early in New York a) Is at the heart of the Bosnywash megalopolis b) Agglomeration played role in development c) Has huge skilled and semiskilled labor force d) Long been one of the world’s great ports a major break of bulk location 3. Facilitated by great natural resources and developed and natural transportation systems
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4. United States’ coal reserves are among the world’s largest and widely spread 5. On the eve of World War I, was catching up with Europe as a major industrial base IV. Mid-twentieth-century industrialization A. Oil and Gas 1. Today, U.S. consumption of petroleum and natural gas is about 27 percent and 37 a) In recent years oil production in the U.S. averaged about 18 percent of world’s total b) Oil reserves are estimated to amount to about 4 percent of the world total c) Heavy dependence on foreign oil supplies 2. The U.S. leads the world in consumption of natural gas
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25 resources & regions - CHAPTER 25 RESOURCES AND...

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