30 nutrition & health

30 nutrition & health - CHAPTER 30: GLOBAL...

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CHAPTER 30: GLOBAL DISPARITIES IN NUTRITION AND HEALTH CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Miracle or debacle A. The green Revolution 1. Ethical problems 2. To whom does an “engineered” strain of highly productive wheat belong 3. One-sixth of the Earth’s population is seriously malnourished a) Failure of distribution systems b) Inability of people to pay the cost c) Traditional cultural practices favor males and disadvantage women and children 4. Majority of world’s malnourished population live in rural areas 5. Males and male children fare much better in the allotment of calories than women and girls II. Nutrition and diet A. Caloric consumption 1. The importance of protein and carbohydrates in a balanced diet 2. Calorie requirements are not the same among the world’s population 3. Figure 30-1 reveals the wide range of caloric intake throughout the world 4. There are disparities within countries 5. Discussion of dietary balance and its importance 6. Hidden hunger occurs when people may get enough calories but are still malnourished 7. When food supply in a village dwindles, the social order frequently falls apart 8. Protein deficiency in the first three years of life does permanent damage—mental and physical III. Mitigating the risks A. Ten areas where action should be taken to reduce the likelihood of a food crisis 1. Formulate population policies 2. Sustain the Green Revolution 3. Expand farmlands 4. Stimulate local production 5. Encourage land reform 6. Improve food distribution systems 7. Develop alternative food sources 8. Strengthen controls over ocean fishing 9. Reduce meat consumption 10. Promote social change B. A major perturbation in global climate alone could reverse the favorable trends of the past quarter century C. Looking Ahead box: Food in the Future IV. The distribution of health A. Medical geography—The study of health in a geographic context 1. Diseases have core areas 2. Diseases spread along identifiable routes 3. Links between disease and environment are found by mapping patterns 4. Contagious diseases —diseases that can be transmitted
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5. Helps to establish where clinics should be located V. Infant and child mortality A. Infant mortality rates (IMR) 1. Defined—a baby's death during the first year following its birth 2. Given as cases per thousand live births 3. Infant and child mortality reflect the overall health of a society 4. Physical health of the mother is a key factor 5. High IMRs can be found in poorer countries a) Women bear a large number of babies b) Women tend to inadequately nourished c) Exhausted from overwork, suffering from disease, and poorly educated d) Improper weaning e) Diarrhea and malnutrition are the leading killers of children through out the world f) Poor sanitation and a lack of clean drinking water 6. Estimated that more than one-fifth of the world’s population lacks ready access to clean drinking water or hygienic human waste-disposal facilities
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30 nutrition & health - CHAPTER 30: GLOBAL...

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