The scale of the contrast between the contemporary world and that which went before is summed up by the very recent transformation unleashed by technology and, latterly, by globalization. Three previous types of society have existed: hunting and gathering societies were the dominant form of social organization throughout human history but are now restricted to a few small parts of South America and Africa; pastoral societies herd animals in environments where agriculture is difficult; agrarian societies are similar except that they raise crops and are therefore more geographically settled and accumulate more possessions. Industrialization makes agricultural employment an activity of the few as most of the population is freed up to work in factories, shops and offices. Cities increase the density of population but simultaneously increase the anonymity of modern life. Local variation gives way to a more integrated social and political network. The nation-state becomes the model for human society in the modern world. Three centuries of colonialism have led to the existence of ‘Three Worlds’. While this
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course SOCIOLOGY Sociology taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..