ss21 - Urbanization is now a global phenomenon. In the...

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Urbanization is now a global phenomenon. In the twentieth century observers began to distinguish between towns and cities, the latter being more cosmopolitan and international, often as a result of cross-national migration to new cities like Chicago. From the start, attitudes to cities have been polarized, with assessments ranging from ‘civilized virtue’ to ‘smoking inferno’. Such views found expression in novels and poetry, much of which focused on the extreme inequalities of urban settings. The Chicago School had two main themes: the ecological approach and ‘urbanism as a way of life’. The ecological approach uses a metaphor adapted from physical science. Cities were therefore organisms which responded to their environmental conditions, a view supported empirically by the tendency for cities to grow beside sources of water, fertile land or transport networks. Similarly, within cities themselves there is a natural balance between competing groups, who often become spatially
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ss21 - Urbanization is now a global phenomenon. In the...

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