Contemporary Management 2e
Managers and Managing
WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?
A manager is a person responsible for supervising the use of an organization's resources to meet
its goals. An organization is a collection of people who work together and coordinate their
actions to achieve a wide variety of goals. Management is the process of using organizational
resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently through planning,
organizing, leading, and controlling. An efficient organization makes the most productive use of
its resources. An effective organization pursues appropriate goals and achieves these goals by
using its resources to create the goods or services that customers want.
The four principal managerial functions are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Managers at all levels of the organization and in all departments perform these functions.
Effective management means managing these activities successfully.
TYPES OF MANAGERS
Organizations typically have three levels of management. First-line managers are responsible for
the day-to-day supervision of non-managerial employees. Middle managers are responsible for
developing and utilizing organizational resources efficiently and effectively. Top managers have
cross-departmental responsibility. The top managers' job is to establish appropriate goals for the
entire organization and to verify that department managers are utilizing resources to achieve
those goals. To increase efficiency and effectiveness, some organizations have altered their
managerial hierarchies by restructuring, by empowering their workforces, utilizing self-managed
teams, and utilizing new information technology.
IT AND MANAGERIAL ROLES AND SKILLS
According to Mintzberg, managers play 10 different roles: figurehead, leader, liaison, monitor,
disseminator, spokesperson, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and
negotiator. Three types of skills help managers perform these roles effectively: conceptual,
human, and technical skills. IT is changing both the way managers perform their roles and the
skills they need to perform these roles because it provides richer and more meaningful
CHALLENGES FOR MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT
Today's competitive global environment presents many interesting challenges to managers: to
build a competitive advantage by increasing efficiency; quality; speed, flexibility, and
innovation; and customer responsiveness. To behave ethically toward people inside and outside
the organization; to manage a diverse workforce; and to utilize new information systems and
The Evolution of Management Theory
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
The search for efficiency started with the study of how managers could improve person-task
relationships to increase efficiency. The concept of job specialization and division of labor
remains the basis for the design of work settings in modern organizations. New developments