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Unformatted text preview: History of the Modern World, 10th Edition (Palmer) Chapter 1: The Rise of Europe Chapter Overview In order to understand the history of the modern world, we must not only examine Europe and its rise to ascendancy, but also the influences of other cultures and civilizations upon Europe. Convention dictates that modern times began around 1500, yet ancient civilizations like the Greeks and Romans exercised tremendous influence on what would become Europe through contributions to philosophy, science, law, and government. The spread of Christianity, which began in the Roman Empire and continued into the early Middle Ages with the conversion of barbarian tribes and the peoples of eastern Europe, gave Europe a common religion. The growth of the church and the increasing power of the papacy laid the groundwork for an ongoing struggle between secular and religious power. In the Early Middle Ages, Europe underwent social, economic, and political transformations as agricultural innovations encouraged population growth, towns and commerce flourished, and feudal relations laid the foundations for the growth of national monarchies. By about the year 1300, Europe had become a recognizable geographic, cultural, and political entity among the Mediterranean civilizations into which the Greco-Roman world had divided. Chapter 2: The Upheaval in Western Christendom, 1300- 1560 Chapter Overview Latin Christendom underwent a series of crises and disasters beginning in the thirteenth century that would accelerate the long process of secularization. The plague triggered social revolt, to which rulers and the nobility responded violently. The crisis in papal authority in the fourteenth century encouraged the rise of sects and calls for reform. By the sixteenth century, criticisms of Catholic practices and the corruption of the church culminated in the emergence of Protestantism. Catholics responded to the spread of Protestantism with a renewed commitment to missionary activities. Both Catholicism and Protestantism sought to enforce religious conformity, often through the state. Meanwhile, the cultural contributions of the Renaissance had transformed the arts, literature, and conceptions of the human experience, politics, and religion. The Italians paved the way for a more secular outlook on life, while the northern Renaissance thinkers grappled with Christianity and the challenge of restoring its vitality. National monarchs sought to control all aspects of government within their domains, including religion, reinforcing the reality of religious divisions among European societies. Chapter 3: Economic Renewal and Wars of Religon, 1560- 1648 Chapter Overview History of the Modern World, 10th Edition (Palmer) In the century after 1560, Europeans fought religious wars that pitted Catholics against Protestants. These conflicts also involved political, constitutional, economic, and social questions. At the same time, Europe was transformed by its contacts with Africa, Asia, and the questions....
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- Spring '10